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Toxicity Effects

CAS Registry Number: 109-89-7

Selected toxicity information from HSDB, one of the National Library of Medicine's databases. 2.

Names 1

  • Diethamine
  • Diethylamine
  • Ethanamine, N-Ethyl-
  • N-Ethylethanamine

Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES: Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/cu m) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/cu m). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed.[Lundqvist GR et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53 (3): 181-5 (1992)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: ... Vision has become misty and halos have appeared several hr after workmen have been exposed to the vapors of ... amines /including diethylamine, dimethylamine, ethylenediamine/ at concn too low to cause discomfort or disability during several hours of exposure. ... The edema of the corneal epithelium, which is principally responsible for the disturbance of vision, clears spontaneously by the next day, but after exceptionally intense exposures the edema and blurring have taken several days to clear and have been accompanied by photophobia and discomfort from roughness of the corneal surface.[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 76] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Edema of the epithelium of the cornea, generally without pain, has been produced by amine /incl diethylamine/ vapors, causing colored halos to be seen around lights ... .[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 75] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: There have been reports of temporary blue hazy vision /(halo vision)/ from subtle disturbance of the corneal epithelium in people exposed to ethylamines. ... Diethylamine has been identified as having this effect...[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 413] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • GENOTOXICITY: A variety of biochemical mutants were induced by diethylamine in Streptomyces scabies. Bacteria were exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 mL diethylamine per 20 mL (34 and 68 umol/mL) complete media for 4 days at 28 deg C in the absence of metabolic activation. Surviving colonies were isolated and retested for mutations on minimal media. Twenty amino acids requiring biochemical mutants were isolated at the low dose level. Biochemical mutants were not investigated for the high dose level.[Ali AMM et al; Egypt J Microbiol 16 (1-2): 133-14 (1981)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • GENOTOXICITY: Diethylamine was evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay using a standard protocol approved by the National Toxicology Program. Diethylamine was tested at doses of 0, 10, 33, 100, 333, 1000, and 3333 ug/plate in four Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence and absence of Aroclor-induced rat or hamster liver S9. Diethylamine was negative in these tests and the highest ineffective dose level tested in any Salmonella tester strain was 3333 ug/plate.[Zeiger E et al; Environ Mutagen 9: 1-110 (1987)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • GENOTOXICITY: Male Fischer 344 rats exposed via gavage to 500 mg/kg (6.84 mmol/kg) diethylamine and sampled 12 hours later did not exhibit unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in their kidney cells.[Loury DJ et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 87: 127-40 (1987)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: Diethylamine when administered ip to rats was moderate in its inhibitory activity with respect to liver/monoamine oxidase.[Valiev AG; Vopr Biokhim Immunol Chel Zhivotn 33-7 (1974)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: Sensory irritation due to inhalation of diethyl-, triethyl-, dibutyl-, tributyl- and cyclohexylamine was estimated from the decrease in respiratory rate in normal mice (American Standard Method E981-84). The concentration-effect relations followed Michaelis-Menten equations, except for diethylamine, for which a threshold was found. The concentrations depressing the respiratory rate by 50% (RD50) for diethyl-, triethyl-, dibutyl- and cyclohexylamine were 184, 186, 81 and 27 ppm, respectively. ... Pulmonary irritation was estimated from the decrease in respiratory rate in tracheal-cannulated mice. The respective concentrations depressing the respiratory rate by 50% (tRD50) were 549, 691, 101, 96 and 78 ppm for diethyl-, triethyl-, dibutyl-, tributyl- and cyclohexylamine.[Nielsen GD, Yamagiwa M; Chem Biol Interact 71 (2-3): 223-44 (1989)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: Isolated individual fertilized eggs from zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) developed in vitro can be used to elucidate possible actions of hazardous agents on embryogenesis. This non-mammalian test system is easy to handle and allows one to obtain reproducible results within 4-6 days. In the present study, the following were the most important indicators of development at different stages during hatching that were checked: epiboly, yolk clot on primitive mouth (stage (st): 16), irregular muscle movement (st: 20), tail bud separation from the yolk (st: 20), heart beats: 200/min (st: 24), hatching of the embryo (st: 25), 34 somites (st: 25), delay of development. Normal development of each parameter (as %) was plotted against the concentrations of each agent applied in the incubation media (0.2 - 15 mg/mL), and the areas under the curves (AUC, 10(-2) x mg/mL) were calculated. The AUCs of dimethylformamide (DMF) were compared to those of N-methylformamide (NMF) and formamide (FA). Epiboly, muscle movement, and hatching of the embryo were more disturbed by DMF than by NMF or FA. Changes of the other parameters (yolk clot on primitive mouth, tail bud separation from the yolk, heart beats: 200/min, 34 somites, delay of development) were more pronounced after application of NMF than of DMF or FA. In total, the order of activity was: NMF greater than DMF greater than FA. Methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and diethylamine (DEA), 0.1 - 5 mg/mL incubation media (neutralized by HCl to pH 7.5), caused mortality of most of eggs by cytotoxic effects essentially at stage 24. Malformations were not observed. The order of activity was: DEA greater than MA greater than DMA: this has been shown by the rates of embryonic mortality: DEA - 60% at 0.5 mg/mL, MA - 60% at 2 mg/mL, DMA - 40% at 2 mg/mL incubation media. The results show that the fish egg model allows the researcher to easily differentiate types of embryogenesis lesions caused by chemicals.[Kronauer K et al; Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 341 (Suppl): R21 (1990)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: Male and female Fischer 344 (F-344) rats were exposed at 0,25 or 250 ppm diethylamine (DEA) vapor, 6.5 hr per day, 5 days per week, for 24 weeks in order to assess cardiac and other organ system toxicity. Scheduled sacrifices were performed following 30, 60, and 120 days of exposure. During the first 2 weeks of exposure, the rats exposed at 250 ppm DEA did not gain weight. After 2 weeks, however, the rate of weight gain of these rats was greater than that of controls. Nevertheless, mean body weights for both sexes of rats exposed at 250 ppm DEA remained depressed compared to controls throughout the study. Sneezing, tearing, and reddened noses were seen in rats exposed at 250 ppm DEA. Histopathologic examinations revealed lesions of the nasal mucosa of rats exposed at 250 ppm DEA (rats exposed at 25 ppm were not evaluated). These lesions of the respiratory epithelium consisted of squamous metaplasia, suppurative rhinitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. There were no pronounced treatment-related effects on organ weights, hematology, or clinical chemistry indices except for blood urea nitrogen which was evaluated in rats of both sexes exposed at 250 ppm DEA for 24 weeks. In contrast to the high-dose animals, no treatment-related effects were observed in rats intermittently exposed at 25 ppm DEA for up to 24 weeks. No evidence of cardiotoxicity was seen in rats exposed to either DEA concentration for up to 24 weeks.[Lynch DW et al; Fundam Appl Toxicol 6 (3): 559-65 (1986)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: Rabbits were exposed to diethylamine vapors at 50 and 100 ppm, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks. All rabbits survived the exposures and had normal body weights without demonstrating any outward signs of response to the chemical. At 100 ppm, lungs contained cellular infiltration and bronchopneumonia; livers had parenchymatous degeneration with evidence of cell regeneration; and kidneys showed nephritis. The same changes, but to a lesser degree, were produced at 50 ppm. A suggestion of very slight cardiac muscle degeneration was seen in rabbits inhaling 50 ppm but was not evident at 100 ppm.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the TLVs and BEIs with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. 7th Ed. CD-ROM Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634 2013., p. 2] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: Rats were dosed with CCl4 or diethylamine to induce liver injury. The time and magnitude of peak liver injury were assessed by histopathological examination of liver specimens taken at intervals after dosing. Serum enzymes were measured at the same intervals. Serum ornithine carbamyl transferase (SOCT) activity increased at least 6-fold in animals that showed liver damage by histopathology, and fell again as the injuries resolved. Measurements of other enzymes were less sensitive. SOCT measurements appear to be as sensitive a method as histopathology for detecting liver damage caused by administering xenobiotics. Since serum enzyme measurements do not require that the animals be sacrificed, they can be used for repeated examinations of the same animals, thus increasing the likelihood of detecting transient injury.[DROTMAN RB, LAWHORN GT; DRUG CHEM TOXICOL 1 (2): 163-71 (1978)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

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Human Toxicity Values

  • None found

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Non-Human Toxicity Values

  • LC50 Rat inhalation 4000 ppm/4 hr[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1238] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit dermal 580 mg/kg[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. V4 717] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit skin 820 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1238] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat oral 540 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1238] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Absorption, Distribution And Excretion

  • None found

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Metabolism/Metabolites

  • None found

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Tsca Test Submissions

  • Acute dermal toxicity was evaluated in groups of 4 male New Zealand white rabbits receiving single occluded applications of undiluted diethylamine at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg of body weight. The test material was held in contact with the intact skin for a 24 hour period. Mortality was observed within 14 days of dosing in 1 animals in at the 0.5 ml/kg dose level, 2 at 1.0 ml/kg and in all animals at 2.0 ml/kg; the LD50 was calculated to be 0.891 ml/kg with 95% confidence limits of 0.419 to 1.89 ml/kg. Clinical observations included necrosis, edema and erythema of the skin and loss of coordination. Gross necropsy revealed mottled livers and dark medullae in the kidney.[Union Carbide Corp.; Range Finding Toxicity Studies of Diethylamine, (1979), EPA Doc. No. 86-870001447, Fiche No. OTS0515609] **UNREVIEWED**
  • Acute inhalation toxicity was evaluated in groups of 6 male Wistar strain rats exposed to diethylamine at measured concentrations of 4000 and 8000 ppm for 4 hours. The test atmosphere was generated by passing dried air through a fritted glass disc immersed in 1.5 inches of the test material at a rate of 2.5 l/minute. Mortality was observed in all animals in the 8000 ppm dose group; the LC50 was calculated to be 5700 (4600 to 7000) ppm. Clinical observations included gasping, nasal irritation, bloody nasal discharge, irritated extremities, nasal irritation, poor coordination, convulsions, wet noses, and partially closed eyes. Gross necropsy revealed red lungs and yellowed, gas- and liquid-filled intestines.[Union Carbide Corp.; Range Finding Toxicity Studies of Diethylamine, (1979), EPA Doc. No. 86-870001447, Fiche No. OTS0515609] **UNREVIEWED**
  • Acute oral toxicity was evaluated in groups of 4 male albino, Sherman strain rats administered single doses of diethylamine by oral gavage at levels of 0.252, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 gm/kg of body weight. Mortality was observed within 14 days of dosing in 3 animals at dose level 0.50 gm/kg, 4 at 1.0 gm/kg and in all 5 at 2.0 gm/kg; the LD50 was calculated to be 0.54 gm/kg with 95% confidence limits of 0.35 to 0.83 gm/kg. Clinical observations included sluggishness and reduced body temperature. Gross necropsy revealed congestion of the lungs, liver and kidneys, necrosis and hemorrhage of the stomach, and a congested, hemorrhaged and opaque intestine.[Union Carbide Corp.; Range Finding Tests on Diethylamine, (1950), EPA Doc. No. 86-870001410, Fiche No, OTS0515572] **UNREVIEWED**
  • The dermal sensitization potential of diethylamine (CAS # 109-89-7) was evaluated in 10 CF1(BR) mice inducted with 3 daily 0.1 ml topical applications of a 1.0% (v/v) test solution to clipped abdomens. A group of 10 mice likewise inducted over 3 days with 0.1 ml dermal applications of 0.5% DNCB served as the positive control. Challenge and rechallenge were administered 7 and 14 days later in dermal applications of a 50% solution to both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the left and right ears respectively of inducted test mice. Ear thickness measured at 24 and 48-hour evaluations indicated the degree of sensitization. Challenge and rechallenge elicited no response in either test or irritation control groups at 24 or 48-hour evaluations. Conversely, 80% and 100% positive response in the DCNB-inducted and challenged groups at 24-hour and 48-hour evaluations, respectively, confirmed the validity of the test system.[Virginia Chemicals; Mouse Ear Swelling Test of Diethylamine; 05/22/87; EPA Doc. No. 86-870000814; Fiche No. OTS0515252] **UNREVIEWED**

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Footnotes

1 Source: the NTP's CEBS database.

2 Source: the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substance Database, 02/28/2017.

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