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Toxicity Effects

CAS Registry Number: 109-94-4

Selected toxicity information from HSDB, one of the National Library of Medicine's databases. 2.

Names 1

  • Carboxylic Acid Oxaethane
  • Ethyl Formic Ester
  • Ethyl Methanoate
  • Formic Acid, Ethyl Ester

Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • IT IS: IRRITATING TO SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, & IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS.../A CNS DEPRESSANT/.[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 551] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • No irritation was noted after a 48 hr closed-patch test of 4% ethyl formate on human subjects.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 314] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Slight eye irritation in human subjects and strong persistent nasal irritation were noted on exposure to 330 ppm in the air. ... The irritating effects on the eyes and respiratory tract are probably due to rapid hydrolysis of the ester on contact with water, with the formation of alcohol and formic acid.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 314] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • THE ANESTHETIC POTENCY /IS/ ... LESS THAN THAT OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS & ETHYL ETHER, BUT IT /IS/ ... MORE ACTIVE ... THAN ETHANOL, ACETONE AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS ... .[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 633] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • THERE ARE NO REPORTS OF TOXIC EFFECTS ON HUMANS EXCEPT SLIGHT IRRITATION OF THE EYES AND NOSE...10,500 PPM CAUSES MODERATE BUT PROGRESSIVE IRRITATION OF EYES AND NOSE, REMAINING 4 HR AFTER EXPOSURE.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 314] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • ... In rabbits the dose causing /CNS depressant/ is the same as the lethal dose.[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. II-201] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ...ETHYL FORMATE...HAS BEEN CONSIDERED...LESS IRRITATING & LESS APT TO CAUSE RESPIRATORY DISTURBANCE THAN METHYL FORMATE.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • EXPOSURE OF DOGS TO 10,000 PPM FOR 4 HR RESULTED IN PULMONARY EDEMA & DEATH. /FROM TABLE/[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2267] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • EXPOSURE OF MICE TO 10,000 PPM FOR 20 MIN, OR 5000 PPM FOR 20 MINUTES RESULTED IN EYE IRRITATION & DYSPNEA. EXPOSURE OF CATS TO 10,000 PPM AND 5,000 PPM FOR 80 MIN AND 20 MIN RESULTED IN EYE IRRITATION AND DYSPNEA. /FROM TABLE/[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2267] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • EXPOSURE OF RATS TO CONCN VAPORS FOR 5 MIN DID NOT RESULT IN ANY DEATHS. EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 8000 PPM FOR 4 HR RESULTED IN 5 DEATHS OF 6 EXPOSED. EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 4000 PPM FOR 4 HR DID NOT RESULT IN ANY DEATHS. /FROM TABLE/[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2267] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Ethyl formate liquid tested in a standard way by application to rabbit eyes has caused moderate reversible injury graded 4 on a scale of 10.[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 422] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Exposure of cats at 32 mg/l (10,000 ppm) for 80 min resulted in deep ... /CNS depression/ after 75 min and death after 90 min.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 633] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • IT CAUSES ... DEPRESSION OF CNS LEADING TO DEATH FROM CIRCULATORY & RESPIRATORY FAILURE...[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • In acute inhalation studies of guinea pigs and frogs, ethyl formate was found tobe an irritant of mucous membranes, but it was less irritating and less apt to cause respiratory disturbance than methyl formate. It is, however, more strongly /CNS depressant/ leading to death from circulatory and respiratory failure, but without the convulsions and coma associated with a lethal dose of methyl formate.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 633] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • In rabbits, oral doses of ethyl formate above 28 mmol/kg caused a loss of corneal reflexes, nystagmus, dyspnea and bradycardia.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 311] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • SYMPTOMS OF INTOXICATION: IRRITATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES, SEVERE DYSPNEA, STAGGERING...SOMETIMES PNEUMONIA. APPLICATION TO SKIN RESULTS IN ONLY SLIGHT IRRITATION, AND TO THE EYES MODERATE INJURY OF THE CORNEA.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 314] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • The lungs of dogs and in cats exposed to a 'flowing' mixture of air and ethyl formate (concentration 14,000 ppm) showed edema.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 311] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Total doses of 2.4 or 12.0 g/kg ethyl formate injected ip into A/He mice 3 times/wk for 8 wk resulted in no increase in primary lung tumors and were not considered carcinogenic. Ethyl formate applied to the skin of albino mice for 133 days and promoted with croton oil resulted in no tumors.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Human Toxicity Values

  • None found

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Non-Human Toxicity Values

  • LD50 Rat oral 4.29 g/kg[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Absorption, Distribution And Excretion

  • BECAUSE OF RELATIVELY GOOD SOLUBILITY IN PLASMA, ETHYL FORMATE PASSES READILY THROUGH THE PULMONARY ALVEOLI AND, DUE TO HIGH WATER SOLUBILITY, HAS A HIGH BLOOD-AIR DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 633] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ETHYL FORMATE IS ABSORBED BY THE LUNGS AND THE GI TRACT; SLIGHT PENETRATION OF THE SKIN IS SAID TO OCCUR...[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Metabolism/Metabolites

  • A MUCH STRONGER IRRITANT THAN ETHYL ACETATE, PROBABLY BECAUSE OF HYDROLYSIS TO FORMIC ACID.[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. II-202] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Ethyl formate is metabolized by esterases in Streptomyces nitrificans.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 312] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Tsca Test Submissions

  • None found

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Footnotes

1 Source: the NTP's CEBS database.

2 Source: the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substance Database, 02/28/2017.

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