Share This:

Toxicity Effects

CAS Registry Number: 111-27-3

Selected toxicity information from HSDB, one of the National Library of Medicine's databases. 2.

Names 1

  • 1-hexanol
  • Hexanol
  • n-Hexanol

Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • BIOMONITORING: A capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection is available for measuring 1-hexanol in urine. A method involving a capillary gas chromatographic method with normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for detecting 1-hexanol in plasma.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 4:439] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • CASE REPORTS: ... In 4 instances of corneal burns in workmen, recovery was complete in 48 hr.[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 484] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES: 1-Hexanol (1% in petrolatum) did not produce skin irritation after a 48 hr closed-patch test in humans and did not cause sensitization reactions.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 182] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Liquid causes eye burns and skin irritation.[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5.] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Overexposure to 1-hexanol is likely to lead to irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract and possible ... /CNS depression/.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:441] **PEER REVIEWED**

Back to top

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • ALTERNATIVE IN VITRO TESTS: In rat hepatocytes, 0.1 mM of 1-hexanol did not induce peroxisome proliferation.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • GENOTOXICITY: /1-hexanol was negative in an Ames test with Salmonella Typhimurium at concentrations of 8, 40, 200, 1000, and 5000 ug/plate with and without microsomal activation./[European Chemicals Bureau; IUCLID Dataset, 1-Hexanol (111-27-3) (2000 CD-ROM edition). Available from, as of April 20, 2006: http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: 1-Hexanol ... unlike 2-hexanol, probably has low neurotoxicity, but by drop application to rabbit eyes causes injury graded 9 on a scale of 10 after 24 hr.[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 484] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: 1-Hexanol was moderately irritating to rabbit skin when applied for 24 h under occlusive conditions.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: 1-Hexanol was severely irritating to the eyes of rabbits.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: Aspiration of 0.2 ml of hexyl alcohol by the rat caused respiratory arrest and instant death. The lungs showed small areas of focal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema.[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4610] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: In a sensory irritation (Alarie) test, 1-hexanol produced sensory irritation in mice with an RD50 /(airborne concentration resulting in a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate)/ of 240 ppm.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure: The maximal period of survival in rats exposed by inhalation to saturated vapors of 1-hexanol was 8 hr.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 180] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity: The tumor promoting activity of 1-hexanol was studied on skin of mice treated with an initiating dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, then with 20 uL of a hexanol solution (20 g hexanol /dissolved/ in 100 mL of cyclohexane/, the solvent control/) three times a week for 60 weeks. No skin tumors developed in 36 survivors.[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4610] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: In an oral gavage teratology screening study, CD rats were dosed with 0, 200, and 1000 mg/kg of 1-hexanol (in corn oil) on days 6 to 15 of gestation. Maternal toxicity occurred at the 1000 mg/kg level as indicated by clinical signs and decreased body weight gain. No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were observed at either dose level.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to the maximally attainable vapor concentration of 1-hexanol (3500 mg/cu m or 824 ppm) for 7 hr/day on days 1 to 19 of gestation. Resorptions increased slightly, but no malformations were observed.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity: /1-Hexanol/ was tested experimentally and found not to be neurotoxic. /From table/[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:196] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: 1-Hexanol did not affect serum lipids or induce peroxisome proliferation in male F344 rats fed 2% 1-hexanol (about 1.5 g/kg) in the diet for 3 wk.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: After 8 weeks of treatment with 1-hexanol (102.5 mg/kg/day, ip, 6 days/wk) only sensory potential amplitude was decreased /in rats/.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 181] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: Electron microscope examination of the retina of the eyes of rabbits exposed by inhalation to vapors containing 118 mg/cu m (28.3 ppm) hexyl alcohol for 6 months revealed ultrastructural changes in the photoreceptor cells and Muller fibers. (The hexanol was not specifically identified as 1-hexanol and the number of hours per day, days per week of the exposure were not given.)[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4609] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: 1-Hexanol (5mM) inhibited growth of Escherichia coli.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 179] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: 1-Hexanol showed equivocal signs of peripheral neuropathy in rats treated intraperitoneally for 8 months.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: Central nervous system depressant. Moderate irritant to rabbit skin with percutaneous absorption sufficient to produce systemic signs of intoxication. Inhalation toxicity is low.[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. II-175] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: In terms of the ip dose to produce pronounced impairment of gait in rats, the straight chain primary alcohols increased in potency by almost 2 orders of magnitude from methanol to 1-hexanol.[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-12] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: OF SERIES OF PRIMARY ALCOHOLS FROM HEXANOL TO DECANOL, 1-HEXANOL HAD MOST IRRITATING EFFECT ON RABBIT EYES.[Grant, W. M. Toxicology of the Eye. 2nd ed. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1974., p. 548] **PEER REVIEWED**

Back to top

Human Toxicity Values

  • None found

Back to top

Non-Human Toxicity Values

  • LC50 Mouse inhalation >21 mg/L/1 hr[European Chemicals Bureau; IUCLID Dataset, 1-Hexanol (111-27-3) (2000 CD-ROM edition). Available from, as of April 20, 2006: http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Mouse iv 103 mg/kg.[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1955] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Mouse oral 1950 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1955] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Mouse oral 4000 mg/kg[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit dermal 2530 mg/kg[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit dermal 3100 mg/kg[ITII. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988., p. 267] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat oral 4590 mg/kg[ITII. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988., p. 267] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat oral 4870 mg/kg[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat oral 720 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 1955] **PEER REVIEWED**

Back to top

Absorption, Distribution And Excretion

  • The in vitro dermal flux in human skin (epidermis) was reported to be 0.044 mg/sq cm/hr, indicating a low rate of dermal uptake.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:441] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • The permeability of excised rat skin to 1-hexanol was increased by hydration for the first ten hours, then returned to baseline.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 179] **PEER REVIEWED**

Back to top

Metabolism/Metabolites

  • 1-Hexanol has a high affinity for ADH /alcohol dehydrogenase/, similar to amyl and n-octyl alcohol, and is a potent inhibitor of ethanol oxidation. 1-Hexanol is metabolized by direct conjugation with glucuronic acid and by oxidation to the carboxylic acid and eventually to carbon dioxide.[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 4610] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Metabolic studies in rabbits indicate that oxidation to hexanoic acid is the major pathway, mediated by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Direct conjugation with glucuronic acid is a minor pathway.[Bingham, E.; Cohrssen, B.; Powell, C.H.; Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1-9 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. New York, N.Y. (2001)., p. 6:440] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Through successive oxidation processes, 1-hexanol is converted to hexanoic acid, which then undergoes beta-oxidation.[Snyder, R. (ed.). Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. Second Edition. Volume 3 Alcohols and Esters. New York, NY: Elsevier, 1992., p. 179] **PEER REVIEWED**

Back to top

Tsca Test Submissions

  • None found

Back to top

Footnotes

1 Source: the NTP's CEBS database.

2 Source: the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substance Database, 02/28/2017.

Back to top