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Toxicity Effects

CAS Registry Number: 111-44-4

Selected toxicity information from HSDB, one of the National Library of Medicine's databases. 2.

Names 1

  • Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
  • Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether
  • Ethane, 1,1'-Oxybis(2-Chloro-

Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • ... @ 550 TO 1,000 PPM EVEN BRIEF EXPOSURE PRODUCES PROFUSE LACRIMATION ... BURN OF HUMAN CORNEA, POSSIBLY FROM SPLASH, HAS BEEN LISTED WITHOUT DETAILS.[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 326] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ... In experimental human exposure, 500 ppm caused intolerable irritation to the eyes and nose with cough, nausea and vomiting; at 100 ppm there was some irritation, while at 35 ppm there were no effects. Except for accidental inhalation of high concentrations, the chief hazard in industrial practice is mild bronchitis, which may be caused by repeated exposures to low concentrations. ...[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 2] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Although dichloroethyl ether has found considerable use in industry, no well-documented cases of occupational intoxication have been recorded. /There was a/ statement of an industrial chemist, that use of a mixture containing dichloroethyl ether in the wool industry caused the death of a worker, presumably through inhalation of the vapor. /There was/ reported an episode of hysteria in a plant after it had been fumigated with a solution of chlordane in dichloroethyl ether and kerosene. /It was noted that a/ slight eye irritation from a concentration of 2.5 ppm of dichloroethyl ether.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 186] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Exposing human volunteers for brief periods at concentrations above 550 ppm, found intolerable irritation of eyes and nasal passages, with coughing, nausea, and retching. Concentrations between 100 and 260 ppm, although considered irritating, were not intolerable; a concentration of 35 ppm was not irritating, but was still detectable by its nauseous odor.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 432] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Exposure to 1000 ppm for 30 to 60 min may result in death within days. The odor is easily detectable at 35 ppm which causes only slight irritation.[Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 1105] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • IN HUMAN BEINGS THE VAPOR IS HIGHLY IRRITANT TO THE EYES, NOSE AND RESPIRATORY PASSAGES. ONE FATAL CASE IN A FULLING MILL, WHERE IT WAS PRESUMABLY USED WARM, IS BRIEFLY MENTIONED WITHOUT DETAILS ...[Browning, E. Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. New York: American Elsevier, 1965., p. 515] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • IT CAN PENETRATE THE SKIN ... TO CAUSE SERIOUS AND EVEN FATAL POISONING. ... PRINCIPAL EFFECT OF ... VAPOR IS IRRITATION. THIS CAN BE ... SEVERE ENOUGH TO CAUSE DELAYED PULMONARY EDEMA.[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 480] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Strongly irritating to skin, eyes, mucous membranes.[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 445] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • ... /IN/ STUDIES WITH RABBITS ... 10% SOLN ... HAD VERY LITTLE OR NO EFFECT ON INTACT OR ABRADED SKIN AFTER REPEATED APPLICATIONS.[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 474] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ... 30 FEMALE ICR/HA SWISS MICE, 6 WK OF AGE, WAS GIVEN WEEKLY SC INJECTIONS OF 1 MG BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER IN 0.05 ML PURIFIED PARAFFIN OIL FOR LIFE (MEDIAN SURVIVAL TIME, 656 DAYS). WITHIN 685 DAYS 2 MICE HAD DEVELOPED SARCOMAS @ INJECTION SITE. NO TUMORS OCCURRED IN 30 CONTROLS GIVEN 0.05 ML PURIFIED PARAFFIN OIL ALONE (MEAN SURVIVAL TIME, 643 DAYS).[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php, p. V9 120 (1975)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ... A long-term study was conducted to investigate the possible carcinogenicity of DCEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats following sc injections of 4.36 umole and 13.1 umole DCEE in dimethylsulfoxide per week. The evaluation of tumor development in treated groups and controls were based on macroscopic inspection and histological examinations of the suspect organs and tissues.... There was no appreciable increase in the number of tumors detected in DCEE-treated animals when compared with untreated or dimethylsulfoxide-treated groups. ... Irradiation of DCEE with UV did not elevate mutagenic activity of the compound against Salmonella typhimurium TA100.[Norpoth K et al; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 112 (2): 125-30 (1986)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • ... ACTION ... /IN GUINEA PIGS BY INHALATION/ IS THAT OF A PRIMARY RESPIRATORY IRRITANT. ALTHOUGH THE CMPD IS CAPABLE OF CAUSING ... /CNS DEPRESSION/ @ HIGH CONCN, THE DELAYED DEATHS @ LOWER CONCN HAVE BEEN DUE TO SEVERE IRRITATION OF THE RESPIRATORY TREE, WITH A RESULTANT RESP COLLAPSE. THE CONGESTIONS IN THE BRAIN, LIVER, & KIDNEYS ARE PROBABLY SECONDARY EFFECTS.[Patty, F. (ed.). Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume II: Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1963., p. 1676] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • ... TESTED FOR PULMONARY TUMOR INDUCTION IN STRAIN A/ST MALE MICE BY GIVING THEM IP INJECTIONS OF 3 DOSE LEVELS 3 TIMES A WK FOR A TOTAL OF 24 INJECTIONS. UPON SACRIFICE, 24 WK AFTER THE FIRST INJECTION, RESULTS WERE NEGATIVE. SURVIVAL @ 20 MG/KG, WHICH WAS GIVEN 24 TIMES (TOTAL DOSE OF 480 MG/KG), WAS 100%, WHEREAS @ 40 MG/KG, WHICH WAS GIVEN 4 TIMES (TOTAL DOSE OF 160 MG/KG), IT WAS 75%.[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 89] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • DICHLOROETHYL ETHER: ... MAY INJURE GROWING PLANTS ALTHOUGH GRASSES ARE LESS AFFECTED THAN ARE OTHER PLANTS ...[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980., p. 1203] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • WITH RABBITS: ... WHEN THE PURE MATERIAL WAS USED, ACUTELY TOXIC AMT RAPIDLY PENETRATED THE SKIN AND CAUSED DEATH WITHIN A DAY.[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 474] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • 2 GROUPS OF 18 MALE AND 18 FEMALE MICE OF THE (C57B1/6XC3H/ANF)F1 OR (C57B1/6XAKR)F1 STRAIN WERE GIVEN THE SAME ABSOLUTE AMT OF 100 MG/KG BODY WT BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER BY STOMACH TUBE DAILY FROM THE 7TH TO 28TH DAY OF AGE. ... CHEMICAL WAS FED @ CONCN OF 300 MG/KG BODY WT IN DIET FOR 80 WK. OF (C57B1/6XC3H/ANF)F1 MICE, 14/16 MALES DEVELOPED HEPATOMAS & 2/16, LYMPHOMAS; & 4/18 FEMALES DEVELOPED HEPATOMAS. OF (C57B1/6XAKR)F1 MICE, 9/17 MALES DEVELOPED HEPATOMAS & 2/17, PULMONARY ADENOMAS; ONLY 1 LYMPHOMA ... AMONG 18 FEMALES. THE INCIDENCE OF HEPATOMAS IN MALE & FEMALE CONTROLS OF THE TWO STRAINS WERE 8/79[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php, p. V9 120 (1975)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • A test for mutagenic potential by the heritable translocation test was negative in mice that received three different oral doses by gavage. The compound was weakly mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella assay using the agar-incorporation system and very mutagenic in desiccator or suspension assay systems. The mutagenic activity was enhanced by the addition of an S-9 activation mix that was prepared from human liver.[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 90] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Acute response at various air concentrations have been studied in the guinea pig and rat. Exposure of the guinea pig at levels of 500 ppm of the vapors caused immediate severe eye and nose irritation and after 1.5 to 3 hours, respiratory disturbances, followed by death after 5 to 8 hours. The major organ affected was the lungs, with lesser effects in the liver, kidneys and brain. Lung damage was the cause of delayed death even after 90 minutes exposure at this concentration. Reducing the concentration to 105 ppm resulted in eventual death after 10 hours of continous exposure; however, if limited to 1 hour, no serious systemic disturbances resulted, although eye and nose irritation were evident. At 35 ppm, irritation was still present, but without other signs of adverse effects. Rats responded similarly when exposed at 250 ppm for 4 hours; this exposure was lethal.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 432] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • An embryo-larval test has been conducted with bis(2-chloroethyl)ether on the fathead minnow. No adverse effects were observed at test concn as high as 19,000 ug/l.[USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Chloroalkyl Ethers p.B-1 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-030] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • CHLOREX GIVEN ORALLY TO RATS IN DOSES OF 13 MG/KG/DAY FOR 2 MO INCR RETENTION OF BROMOSULFOPHTHALEIN IN THE BLOOD, INCR THE BLOOD LEVEL OF EOSINOPHILS AND GLOBULINS, AND DECR THAT OF LEUKOCYTES AND ALBUMINS.[BAKHTIZINA GZ, OSIPOVA LO; TR UFIM NAUCH-ISSLED INST GIG PROF ZABOL 5: 84 (1969)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • CHRONIC: BY INHALATION, FOR RATS AND GUINEA PIGS, REPEATED EXPOSURES TO 69 PPM, 5 PER WK OVER A PERIOD OF 130 DAYS CAUSED NO INJURY OTHER THAN DEPRESSION OF GROWTH. APPEARANCE, BEHAVIOR, MORTALITY AND HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES WERE UNAFFECTED.[Browning, E. Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. New York: American Elsevier, 1965., p. 515] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • FOURTEEN CHEMICALS OF VARIED USES WERE TESTED FOR CARCINOGENICITY BY ORAL ADMIN IN MALE AND FEMALE CHARLES RIVER CD RATS. UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE TEST, BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER WAS NOT CARCINOGENIC.[WEISBURGER EK ET AL; J NATL CANC INST 67 (1): 75 (1981)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Hepatomas developed in both sexes of two mice strains after prolonged oral administration of dichloroethyl ether (300 mg/kg for 80 weeks).[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 432] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • IN AMES TESTS WITH SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM AND ESCHERICHIA COLI, THE LOW MUTAGENICITY OF 2,2'-DICHLORODIETHYL ETHER WAS STIMULATED BY NADPH2 /AND S9 FRACTION/.[MUELLER G, NORPOTH K; KREBSGEFAEHRDUNG ARBEITSPLATZ/ARBEITSMED KOLLOQ, BER JAHRESTAG DTSCH GES ARBEITSMED, 19TH: 205 (1979)] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • INHALATION ... GUINEA PIGS ... IF THE EXPOSURE TIME TO 100 PPM WAS LIMITED TO 1 HR, NO SERIOUS DISTURBANCES RESULTED, EVEN THOUGH EYE & NOSE IRRITATION WAS STILL EVIDENT. ... INDICATED EVEN @ 35 PPM ALTHOUGH THERE WERE NO OTHER SIGNS OF ADVERSE EFFECTS AND NO DEATHS AFTER 13 1/2 HR OF CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE.[Patty, F. (ed.). Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume II: Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1963., p. 1675] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • INTENSE IRRITATION OF CONJUNCTIVA WITH LACRIMATION, AND OF NOSE; UNSTEADINESS OR VERTIGO, SLOW RESPIRATION AT FIRST, BECOMING SHALLOW AND RAPID, SLIGHT RETCHING, UNCONSCIOUSNESS LEADING TO DEATH. LOWER CONCN (100 PPM) CAUSED ... UNCONSCIOUSNESS ONLY AFTER 13 HR.[Browning, E. Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. New York: American Elsevier, 1965., p. 515] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • RATS EXPOSED TO 250 PPM FOR 4 HR HAD A DEATH RATE OF EITHER 2/6, 3/6, OR 4/6 WITHIN 14 DAYS.[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 474] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • RESP TRACT WAS CHIEF SITE OF INJURY; THE LUNG SHOWED EMPHYSEMA, EDEMA AND HEMORRHAGES, SOMETIMES COMPLETE CONSOLIDATION. THE NASAL PASSAGES, TRACHEA AND BRONCHI SHOWED CONGESTION ...[Browning, E. Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents. New York: American Elsevier, 1965., p. 515] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Repeated exposures of rats and guinea pigs to dichloroethyl ether vapors at 69 ppm for 93, 7-hr exposures, 5 days/week for a 130-day period resulted in no serious injury; the abnormalities seen reflected mild physiologic response to stress. All of the animals showed varying degrees of growth depressions and some inconsistent variations in organ weights, although microscopic examination revealed no cellular lesions.[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 432] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • STUDIES WITH RABBITS HAVE REVEALED THAT BOTH THE PURE MATERIAL AND A 10% SOLN IN PROPYLENE GLYCOL CAUSE MODERATE PAIN, CONJUNCTIVAL IRRITATION, AND CORNEAL INJURY, WHICH GENERALLY HEALS WITHIN 24 HR.[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 474] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • The mutagenic, recombinagenic, and SOS inducing potencies of 6 bifunctional directly acting alkylating agents (mitomycin C, thiotepa, chloroambucil, nitrogen mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, and bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea were measured in an Escherichia coli test system (E. coli multitest) as the integral under the yield-dose curve obtained for each event. This potency corresponds to the cumulative yield of the affected cell population over the entire effective dose range of the chem treatment. A weak mutagenic activity was detected only for mitomycin C and thiotepa. Except for bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, all agents were recombinagenic and SOS inducing. When the 3 genotoxic potencies mutagenic, recombinagenic, and inducing of these bifunctional alkylating agents were correlated, separate or in combination, with the respective carcinogenic potencies in rodents a highly significant correlation was obtained with both the recombinagenic and SOS inducing potencies.[Quinto I, Radman M; Mutat Res 181 (2): 235-42 (1987)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • The purpose of this research program was to provide metabolic data on four rather common drinking water contaminants. The cmpd were 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), bromodichloromethane (BDC), bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether (BCIE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE). The (14)C-labeled cmpd were administered orally and sometimes iv, to rats and rhesus monkeys. ... BCIE in monkeys was also excreted via the lung and was very toxic to the eyes and kidneys following multiple 30 mg/kg oral doses. Preliminary studies of BCEE in 2 rhesus monkeys produced the same signs of periorbital toxicity as BCIE when oral dose of 10 mg/kg was administered.[Smith CC et al; Invest of the Metab of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Subhuman Species p.1-134 (1985) EPA 600/1-85-001] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Human Toxicity Values

  • None found

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Non-Human Toxicity Values

  • Inhalation of metered vapor concn by rats: Concn: 1000 ppm Time: 3/4 hr. Mortality: 3/6. /From table/[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 456] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Guinea pig skin 300 mg/kg[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 432] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Mouse oral 136 mg/kg[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 489] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit oral 126 mg/kg[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 489] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit percutaneous 0.3 ml/kg /From table/[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 456] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rabbit single percutaneous 0.3 ml/kg /From table/[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 455] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat single oral 0.075 g/kg in a suitable vehicle. /From table/[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 455] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • Rat inhalation 700 ppm/6 hr killed all 5 animals[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 90] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Absorption, Distribution And Excretion

  • Either 40 umole or 160 umole DCEE was injected into male Wistar rats and the metabolites, thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) and hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid (HEMA), were determined in the 24 hr urine specimens. ... Analysis of the metabolites showed that hydroxymethyl mercapturic acid excretion was much lower than the excretion of thiodiglycolic acid following the uptake of DCEE ... .[Norpoth K et al; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 112 (2): 125-30 (1986)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • MALE RATS WERE GIVEN A SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF 40 MG/KG (14)C-LABELED BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER (BCEE). EXCRETION OF (14)CARBON DIOXIDE AND URINARY (14)C FOLLOWED FOR 48 HR. THE TIME REQUIRED TO ELIMINATE ONE HALF OF THE DOSE WAS 12 HR FOR (1-(14)C)BCEE. EXPIRED (14)CARBON DIOXIDE ACCOUNTED FOR 11.5% OF THE DOSE, URINARY (14)C ACCOUNTED FOR 64.7%, AND 2.4% WAS FOUND IN THE FECES.[LINGG RD ET AL; ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL 11 (2): 173 (1982)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

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Metabolism/Metabolites

  • ... In a further step, inhalation experiments were performed to determine urinary excretion of the two metabolites after an 8 hr exposure of male Wistar rats to 10, 50, 100, and 500 ppm DCEE ... .[Norpoth K et al; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 112 (2): 125-30 (1986)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • Either 40 umole or 160 umole DCEE was injected into male Wistar rats and the metabolites, thiodiglycolic acid (TdGA) and hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid (HEMA), were determined in the 24 hr urine specimens. ...[Norpoth K et al; J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 112 (2): 125-30 (1986)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • MALE RATS GIVEN SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)ETHER, TWO METABOLITES WERE IDENTIFIED IN URINE SAMPLES: THIODIGLYCOLIC ACID (TDGA) & 2-CHLOROETHYL BETA-D-GLUCURONIC ACID.[LINGG RD ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 47 (1): 23 (1979)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • MALE RATS WERE GIVEN A SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF 40 MG/KG (14)C-LABELED BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER (BCEE). THIODIGLYCOLIC ACID ACCOUNTED FOR APPROX 75% OF THE TOTAL URINARY (14)C COLLECTED AFTER THE (1-(14)C)BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER DOSE. LESSER METABOLITES OF BCEE WERE (2-CHLOROETHOXY)ACETIC ACID (5%), AND N-ACETYL-S-(2-(2-CHLOROETHOXY)ETHYL)-L-CYSTEINE (7%).[LINGG RD ET AL; ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL 11 (2): 173 (1982)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

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Tsca Test Submissions

  • None found

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Footnotes

1 Source: the NTP's CEBS database.

2 Source: the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substance Database, 02/28/2017.

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