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Toxicity Effects

CAS Registry Number: 50892-23-4

Selected toxicity information from HSDB, one of the National Library of Medicine's databases. 2.

Names 1

  • ((4-Chloro-6-((2,3-Dimethylphenyl)Amino)-2-Pyrimidinyl)Thio)Acetic Acid
  • (4-Chloro-6-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl) Amino)-2-Pyrimidinyl-1)Thio)- Acetic Acid (9ci)
  • (4-Chloro-6-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)Amino)-2-Pyrimidinyl-1)Thio)- Acetic Acid (9ci)
  • (4-Chloro-6-(2,3-Xylidino)-2-Pyrimidinylthio) Acetic Acid (Wy-14643)
  • 50 ppm Wy-14,643
  • Perfluorinated Compounds
  • Peroxisome project (WY-14643)
  • Pirinixic acid
  • Transgenic model evaluation (WY-14643)
  • WY
  • WY-14,653
  • WY-14643 (Pirixinic Acid)
  • WY14643
  • Wy-14643 (Peroxisome Project)
  • Wy-14643 (Transgenic Model Evaluation)
  • Wyeth 14,643
  • Wyeth 14,643 (WY)
  • Wyeth-14643

Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonism in ocular inflammation has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of WY-14 643, a selective PPARalpha agonist, on inflammatory cytokine release in human ocular cells. Stimulation of primary human corneal epithelial cells, keratocytes, and retinal endothelial cells with 1 to 10 ng/mL interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) resulted in a significant increase in numerous inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha); and dexamethasone was able to significantly inhibit these effects. However, WY-14 643 did not effectively block IL-1beta-induced cytokine release in ocular cells; rather, significant increases in IL-1beta-induced inflammatory cytokines were observed in these cells but not in aortic smooth muscle cells. WY-14 643 also significantly upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes. These studies demonstrate for the first time that PPARalpha agonism may be proinflammatory and proangiogenic in a variety of ocular cells and suggest that therapeutic applications of such agents in ophthalmology may be limited.[Zhang JZ, Ward KW; Int J Toxicol 29 (5): 496-504 (2010)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • GENOTOXICITY: The ability of peroxisome proliferators to induce hepatocellular carcinomas in rodents has been known since the mid 1970's, but the mechanism of tumor formation is still poorly understood. In this study, we have used primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes to address the question of whether the peroxisome proliferator, [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio] acetic acid (Wy-14,643), causes genotoxic damage in hepatocytes as measured by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei formation, and chromosomal aberrations. We have found that in rat hepatocytes the number of SCEs per chromosome increased in a dose-dependent manner from a background level of 0.7 to a maximum of 1.1 in cells exposed for 48 hr to 100 microM of Wy-14,643. In contrast, no increase in SCE frequency was observed in rat hepatocytes exposed to Wy-14,643 for 3 hr. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei formation was also seen in the 48 hr but not in the 3 hr cultures. The maximum frequency of micronuclei formation after a 48 hr exposure occurred at 20 microM Wy-14,643 and was 2.3 times that for control cells. At this concentration of Wy-14,643, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was increased by more than 10-fold. A 48 hr exposure to Wy-14,643 also significantly increased micronuclei formation in human hepatocytes, but it was less effective than in rat hepatocytes. To investigate the potential role of peroxisome proliferation in these genotoxic responses, we measured the activities of palmitoyl-CoA beta-oxidase in hepatocytes exposed for 48 hr to Wy-14,643. A dose-dependent increase in palmitoyl-CoA beta-oxidase activity was observed in rat hepatocytes, but not in human hepatocytes. The SCE frequency in rat hepatocytes correlated well with the degree of peroxisome proliferation, however, the increased formation of micronuclei in both rat and human hepatocytes occurred by a mechanism that appeared to be independent of peroxisome induction. In summary, these results demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643, causes genotoxic damage in primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes.[Hwang JJ et al; Mutat Res 286 (2): 123-33 (1993)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

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Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts

  • GENOTOXICITY: Based on a previous study with 8 chemicals the applicability of the in vitro rat hepatocyte micronucleus assay was evaluated by testing a further 21 compounds of different chemical classes. The obtained results are in good agreement with the known genotoxic profiles of about 90% of the in total tested compounds. Several known mutagens and carcinogens, i.e., alkylating agents, aromatic amines, nitrosamines, nitro compounds, cross-linking agents, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids gave clear positive results in this assay, whereas all of the tested non-carcinogens were negative. The hepatocyte micronucleus assay was shown to distinguish between carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic isomers, such as 2- and 4-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and 2- and 1-nitropropane (NP). Furthermore, the non-genotoxic nature of several hepatocarcinogens, i.e., the peroxisome proliferating agents fenofibrate, nafenopin, Wy-14,643, diethyl(hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and the sedative phenobarbital, could be confirmed in this assay...[Muller-Tegethoff K et al; Mutat Res December 335(3): 293-307 (1995)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • GENOTOXICITY: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used plasticizer, induces proliferation of peroxisomes in liver cells and causes hepatocellular carcinomas when chronically administered in the diet to rodents. To examine possible mechanisms for DEHP-associated cancer, we have measured induction of morphological transformation, chromosome aberrations and peroxisome proliferations of cultured Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells by DEHP and other peroxisome proliferators. Morphological transformation of SHE cells was weakly induced by treatment for 48 hr with DEHP and its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP). The transformation frequency by DEHP was enhanced by exogenous metabolic activation using rat liver postmitochondrial supernatants. Treatment for 24 hr with DEHP resulted in chromosome aberrations of the cells only in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid ethyl ester (clofibrate), a widely used hypolipidemic drug, failed to induce morphological transformation or chromosome aberrations of SHE cells. Treatment with [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio] acetic acid (WY-14,643), which is a more potent carcinogen than DEHP or clofibrate, elicited a lower frequency of morphological transformation than DEHP in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation but was more active than DEHP at inducing chromosome aberrations. Similar levels of peroxisome proliferation, as determined by an intensity of diaminobenzidine staining, were observed in cultures treated for 2 hr with DEHP, MEHP, clofibrate or WY-14,643. These results suggest a possible involvement of genetic damage by DEHP metabolites in the induction of cell transformation of SHE cells by DEHP; however, no clear relationship among induction of peroxisome proliferation, carcinogenicity in vivo and cell transformation was observed. Although the ability to induce cell transformation and chromosomal mutations is not adequate to explain the carcinogenicity of this class of compounds, these biological effects may be contributory to the carcinogenic activities of peroxisome proliferators.[Tsutsui T et al; Carcinogenesis 14 (4): 611-8 (1993)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • GENOTOXICITY: The ability of peroxisome proliferators to induce hepatocellular carcinomas in rodents has been known since the mid 1970's, but the mechanism of tumor formation is still poorly understood. In this study, we have used primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes to address the question of whether the peroxisome proliferator, [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio] acetic acid (Wy-14,643), causes genotoxic damage in hepatocytes as measured by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei formation, and chromosomal aberrations. We have found that in rat hepatocytes the number of SCEs per chromosome increased in a dose-dependent manner from a background level of 0.7 to a maximum of 1.1 in cells exposed for 48 hr to 100 microM of Wy-14,643. In contrast, no increase in SCE frequency was observed in rat hepatocytes exposed to Wy-14,643 for 3 hr. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei formation was also seen in the 48 hr but not in the 3 hr cultures. The maximum frequency of micronuclei formation after a 48 hr exposure occurred at 20 microM Wy-14,643 and was 2.3 times that for control cells. At this concentration of Wy-14,643, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was increased by more than 10-fold. A 48 hr exposure to Wy-14,643 also significantly increased micronuclei formation in human hepatocytes, but it was less effective than in rat hepatocytes. To investigate the potential role of peroxisome proliferation in these genotoxic responses, we measured the activities of palmitoyl-CoA beta-oxidase in hepatocytes exposed for 48 hr to Wy-14,643. A dose-dependent increase in palmitoyl-CoA beta-oxidase activity was observed in rat hepatocytes, but not in human hepatocytes. The SCE frequency in rat hepatocytes correlated well with the degree of peroxisome proliferation, however, the increased formation of micronuclei in both rat and human hepatocytes occurred by a mechanism that appeared to be independent of peroxisome induction. In summary, these results demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643, causes genotoxic damage in primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes.[Hwang JJ et al; Mutat Res 286 (2): 123-33 (1993)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity: Peroxisomeproliferators (PPs) cause hepatomegaly, peroxisome proliferation, and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice. Conversely, hamsters are less responsive to these compounds. PPs increase peroxisomal beta-oxidation and P4504A subfamily activity, which has been hypothesized to result in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that differential modulation of glutathione-related defenses could account for the resulting difference in species susceptibility following PP administration. Accordingly, we measured glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) in male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters fed two doses of three known peroxisome proliferators [dibutylphthalate (DBP), gemfibrozil, and Wy-14,643] for 6, 34, or 90 days. In rats, decreases in GR, GST, and selenium-dependent GPx were observed following PP treatment at various time points. In hamsters, we observed higher basal levels of activities for GR, GST, and selenium-dependent GPx compared to rats. In addition, hamsters showed decreases in GR and GST activities following PP treatment. Interestingly, selenium-dependent GPx activity was increased in hamsters following treatment with Wy-14,643 and DBP. Treatment for 90 days with Wy-14,643 resulted in no change in GPx1 mRNA in rats and increased GPx1 mRNA in hamsters. Sporadic changes in total GSH and selenium-independent GPx were observed in both species. This divergence in the hydrogen peroxide detoxification ability between rats and hamsters could be a contributing factor in the proposed oxidative stress mechanism of PPs observed in responsive and nonresponsive species.[O'Brien ML et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 171 (1): 27-37 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity: Several peroxisome proliferators have been shown to produce pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia/adenocarcinomas in 2-year bioassays with rats: ammonium perfluorooctanoate (C8), clofibrate, methylclofenapate, HCFC-123, and Wyeth-14,643 (WY). ...Two types of in vivo experiments were conducted. The subchronic study (2-month duration) was designed primarily to detect early changes in pancreatic growth such as those mediated by compounds that inhibit trypsin or act as CCK(A) receptor agonists. The chronic study (6 months) was designed primarily to evaluate whether the pancreatic lesions were secondary to hepatic changes such as cholestasis and/or altered bile flow/composition. In the in vivo experiments, male Crl:CDBR rats were fed diets containing 0 or 100 ppm WY. In the subchronic study WY-treated rats had a twofold increase in mean relative liver weights, an eightfold increase in hepatic peroxisomal proliferation, and a fourfold increase in hepatocyte cell proliferation after 1 week which remained elevated throughout the 2 months of treatment. In contrast, no pancreatic weight effects, increases in plasma CCK, or acinar cell proliferation was seen through 2 months in the WY group when compared to the control group. Fecal fat concentrations were also measured at 2 months and demonstrated no difference between control and WY-treated animals. The absence of any early pancreas changes in the subchronic study is consistent with the in vitro data which demonstrated that WY is not a CCK(A) agonist or a trypsin inhibitor. The chronic study demonstrated increases in pancreatic weights at 3 months (6% above control) and 6 months (17% above control), as well as increased CCK plasma levels in the WY-treated group. Liver effects in the chronic study paralleled those of the subchronic time points. Clinical pathology endpoints including increased serum concentrations of bile acids, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were indicative of cholestasis in the chronic WY-treated group. The cholestasis may be responsible for the downward trend in total bile acid output, both of which may contribute to the modest increases in plasma CCK levels. These results indicate that chronic exposure to WY causes liver alterations such as cholestasis, which may increase plasma concentrations of CCK. Hence, WY may induce pancreatic acinar cell adenomas/adenocarcinomas via a mild but sustained increase in CCK levels secondary to hepatic cholestasis.[Obourn JD et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145 (2): 425-36 (1997)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity: The carcinogenicity of the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 was compared in young (starting age 2 months) and old (starting age 15 months) rats. Old rats had a 5- to 7-fold higher yield of grossly visible hepatic tumors following 22 weeks of dietary WY-14,643 when compared to young rats. Volume densities of foci with large cells and homogeneously basophilic cytoplasm, cytologically similar to adenomas and carcinomas, were also higher in old rats fed WY-14,643 when compared to young rats. Although peroxisome proliferation and sustained hepatocellular proliferation have been suggested as relevant for the mechanism of WY-14,643 carcinogenicity, neither response was exaggerated in old versus young rats. Since initiation is considered to occur spontaneously and irreversibly, old rats may have a greater accumulation of spontaneously initiated hepatocytes than young rats. If so, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the carcinogenic mechanism of the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 is due to the promotion of spontaneously initiated hepatocytes.[Cattley RC et al; Carcinogenesis 12 (3): 469-73 (1991)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: A review of the literature indicates that some compounds which produce hepatic peroxisome proliferation in rats also appear to produce Leydig cell adenomas, and some also affect the serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol. Previous studies with the peroxisome proliferator ammonium perfluorooctanoate showed a direct effect on Leydig cells to alter steroidogenesis. It was therefore proposed that peroxisome proliferators in general may directly affect Leydig cell function to produce Leydig cell tumors by some undetermined mechanism. The present study investigated whether the following peroxisome proliferators directly affect Leydig cell function in vitro: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, ammonium perfluorooctanoate, acetylsalicylic acid, clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, gemfibrozil, tiadenol, tibric acid, trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene, and Wyeth 14,643. Leydig cells, isolated from adult Crl:CDBR rats (12-16 weeks old), were treated with peroxisome proliferator for 21 hr and the medium was assayed for estradiol. The function of the treated Leydig cell was evaluated by measuring the release of testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In general, the peroxisome proliferators reduced the hCG-stimulated release of testosterone and either reduced or had no effect on the baseline release of testosterone. Of the 11 peroxisome proliferators, 8 increased the release of estradiol from Leydig cells treated for 1 day. Two more compounds were found to increase estradiol production when the treatment period was extended to 2 days. These effects were seen at noncytotoxic doses and at concentrations similar to those achieved in rat serum in dietary studies. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferators, as a class of compounds, directly modify the steroidogenic function of Leydig cells in vitro. Some of these compounds are known to produce Leydig cell tumors in rats, but this association has yet to be established for other peroxisome proliferators. This suggests that compounds which directly affect Leydig cell function in vitro may also induce Leydig cell tumors in vivo...[Liu RC et al; Fundam Appl Toxicol 30 (1): 102-8 (1996)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: Some peroxisome proliferators have been reported to reduce body weight gain in suckling rats, possibly through a lactational effect. Decreases in milk production or nutritional quality, either as a result of peroxisome proliferator-induced reductions in lipid content or alterations in the hormonal milieu necessary for milk production, could result in pup growth retardation. Wyeth-14,643 (WY) is hypolipidemic agent and a potent inducer of hepatic peroxisome proliferation in rats and mice. As is commonly seen with rodent hepatic peroxisome proliferators, WY produces minimal or no peroxisome induction in guinea pigs or non-human primates. Goats are an excellent model for studying lactation, however, their sensitivity to peroxisome proliferating chemicals is not known. The present study was performed to assess the sensitivity of goats to the hypolipidemic and peroxisome proliferator properties of WY and to determine the effects of WY on milk quantity and quality. Six lactating adult female goats were assigned to either control or treated groups. Goats in the treated group were administered WY (40 mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days. The goats were milked twice daily in order to maintain lactation and the quantity of milk collected was recorded. Milk quality was evaluated by determining the content of total fat, protein, and carbohydrate in milk samples collected following 7 and 14 days of treatment. WY administration had no effects on final body weight, liver weight or, gross and histopathological findings. Milk quantity and quality were unaffected by treatment. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were reduced by 25% compared to controls, although only the difference in cholesterol was statistically significant. Hepatic beta-oxidation (3 x control) and aromatase (1.5 x control) activities were significantly greater in the treatment group; however, there was no treatment-related effect in the total content of hepatic cytochrome P450. There was no difference in aromatase activity in a pooled ovarian microsome sample. Milk estradiol and prolactin concentrations were not affected by treatment. These findings indicate that goats are weak responders to the hepatic peroxisome proliferator effects of WY. Additionally, the slight serum hypolipidemic effect does not impact milk production or nutritional value.[Cappon GD et al; Drug Chem Toxicol 25 (3): 255-66 (2002)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity: The expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-3 mRNA in skeletal muscle is dramatically reduced during lactation in mice. The reduction in UCP-3 mRNA levels lowers the amount of the UCP-3 protein in skeletal muscle mitochondria during lactation. Spontaneous or abrupt weaning reverses the downregulation of the UCP-3 mRNA but not the reduction in UCP-3 protein levels. In lactating and virgin mice, however, fasting increases UCP-3 mRNA levels. Changes in UCP-3 mRNA occur in parallel with modifications in the levels of free fatty acids, which are reduced in lactation and are upregulated due to weaning or fasting. Modifications in the energy nutritional stress of lactating dams achieved by manipulating litter sizes do not influence UCP-3 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle. Conversely, when mice are fed a high-fat diet after parturition, the downregulation of UCP-3 mRNA and UCP-3 protein levels due to lactation is partially reversed, as is the reduction in serum free fatty acid levels. Treatment of lactating mice with a single injection of bezafibrate, an activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), raises UCP-3 mRNA in skeletal muscle to levels similar to those in virgin mice. 4-chloro-6-[(2,3-xylidine)-pirimidinylthio] acetic acid (WY-14,643), a specific ligand of the PPAR-alpha subtype, causes the most dramatic increase in UCP-3 mRNA, whereas troglitazone, a specific activator of PPAR-gamma, also significantly increases UCP-3 mRNA abundance in skeletal muscle of lactating mice. However, in virgin mice, bezafibrate and WY-14,643 do not significantly affect UCP-3 mRNA expression, whereas troglitazone is at least as effective as it is in lactating dams. It is proposed that the UCP-3 gene is regulated in skeletal muscle during lactation in response to changes in circulating free fatty acids by mechanisms involving activation of PPARs. The impaired expression of the UCP-3 gene is consistent with the involvement of UCP-3 gene regulation in the reduction of the use of fatty acids as fuel by the skeletal muscle and in impaired adaptative thermogenesis, both of which are major metabolic adaptations that occur during lactation.[Pedraza N et al; Diabetes 49 (7): 1224-30 (2000)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: ...In this study, male CD and F344 rats were fed diets containing 0, 50, or 1000 ppm WY for 21 days. Peroxisome proliferation in the liver and testis was determined biochemically by measuring beta-oxidation activity and was confirmed ultrastructurally. Serum hormone levels and cell proliferation rates in the liver and testis were also measured. In addition, basal beta-oxidation activity and cell proliferation rates were compared between the CD and F344 rats. A significant decrease in final body weight was observed in the 1000 ppm WY groups for both CD and F344 rats.[Biegel LB et al; Fundam Appl Toxicol 19 (4): 590-7 (1992)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) cause hepatomegaly, peroxisome proliferation, and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice, whereas hamsters are less responsive to PPs. PPs increase the activities of enzymes involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation and omega-hydroxylation of fatty acids, which has been hypothesized to result in oxidative stress. The hypothesis of this study was that differential modulation of antioxidant enzymes and vitamins might account for differences in species susceptibility to PPs. Accordingly, we measured the activities of DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the hepatic content of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters fed 2 doses of 3 known peroxisome proliferators (dibutyl phthalate [DBP], gemfibrozil, and [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid (Wy-14,643) for 6, 34, or 90 days. In untreated animals, the activity of DT-diaphorase was much higher in hamsters than in rats, but the control levels of SOD, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were similar. In rats and hamsters treated with Wy-14,643, we observed decreases in alpha-tocopherol content and total SOD activity. DT-diaphorase was decreased in activity following Wy-14,643 treatment in rats at all time points and doses, but only sporadically affected in hamsters. Rats and hamsters treated with DBP demonstrated increased SOD activity at 6 days; however, in the rat, DBP decreased SOD activity at 90 days and alpha-tocopherol content was decreased throughout. In gemfibrozil treated rats and hamsters, a decrease in alpha-tocopherol content and an increase in DT-diaphorase activity were observed. In either species, no consistent trend was observed in total ascorbic acid content after treatment with any of the PPs. In conclusion, these data suggest that both rats and hamsters are compromised in antioxidant capabilities following PP treatment...[O'Brien ML et al; Toxicol Sci 60 (2): 271-8 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure: We investigated whether chronic in vivo treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist Wy-14,643 attenuates cardiac contractile function by impairing mitochondrial respiration. Wy-14,643 (25 mg/kg/day) was administered to Wistar rats by oral gavage for 14 consecutive days, after which ex vivo heart function, myocardial mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and metabolic gene expression were determined. Body and heart weights were not significantly altered following 14 days of Wy-14,643 administration. Heart perfusion studies showed significantly reduced systolic and developed pressures, while the rate pressure product declined by 36 +/- 2.6% (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle) after 14 days of Wy-14,643 treatment. State 3 mitochondrial respiration was lower in the Wy-14,643 group (P = 0.06 vs. vehicle). State 4 respiration and oligomycin-insensitive proton leak were significantly increased compared with matched controls. The rate of ADP phosphorylation was also decreased by 44.9 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) transcript levels were upregulated, while cytochrome oxidase II (COXII) expression was decreased following Wy-14,643 treatment. This study demonstrates that chronic in vivo Wy-14,643 administration impaired cardiac contractile function in parallel with decreased mitochondrial respiratory function and increased uncoupling.[Zungu M et al; Mol Cell Biochem 330 (1-2): 55-62 (2009)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract
  • OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION: The effects of peroxisome proliferators on the immune system of male C57B1/6 mice have been investigated. Significant atrophy of the thymus and spleen was observed in animals treated with potent peroxisome proliferators (e.g. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), Wy-14643 and nafenopin), whereas the effects of a moderate peroxisome proliferator (i.e. acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)) were relatively weak. The time course of thymic and splenic atrophy caused by PFOA was found to resemble the time course of the increase in liver weight and of peroxisome proliferation. Analysis of the numbers and phenotypes of thymocytes and splenocytes from PFOA-treated mice revealed the following: (i) the numbers of thymocytes and splenocytes were decreased > 90% and about 50%, respectively, by PFOA treatment; (ii) although all populations of thymocytes were decreased, the immature CD4+CD8+ population was decreased most dramatically; (iii) the numbers of both T and B cells in the spleen were decreased by PFOA treatment. Analysis of the cell cycle of thymocytes indicated that the thymic atrophy caused by PFOA in mice results, at least in part, from inhibition of thymocyte proliferation. Interestingly, in vitro exposure to PFOA for up to 24 hr did not produce analogous effects in either thymocytes or splenocytes. Thus, the thymic and splenic atrophy caused by PFOA appears to involve an indirect pathway.[Yang Q et al; Clin Exp Immunol 122 (2): 219-26 (2000)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract Full text: PMC1905771

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Human Toxicity Values

  • None found

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Non-Human Toxicity Values

  • LD50 Mouse oral 1600 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 907] **PEER REVIEWED**
  • LD50 Rat oral 4150 mg/kg[Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 2004., p. 907] **PEER REVIEWED**

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Absorption, Distribution And Excretion

  • None found

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Metabolism/Metabolites

  • None found

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Tsca Test Submissions

  • None found

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Footnotes

1 Source: the NTP's CEBS database.

2 Source: the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substance Database, 02/28/2017.

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