Title: Environmental tobacco smoke and bladder cancer risk in never smokers of Los Angeles County.
Authors: Jiang, Xuejuan; Yuan, Jian-Min; Skipper, Paul L; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Yu, Mimi C
Published In Cancer Res, (2007 Aug 1)
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer and a prominent point source of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a recognized human bladder carcinogen. 4-ABP-hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are established biomarkers of 4-ABP exposure in humans. The role of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the etiology of bladder cancer is largely unknown. As part of a large population-based bladder cancer study in Los Angeles County, California, lifetime exposure to ETS was ascertained for 148 cases and 292 control subjects who had never used any tobacco products over their lifetime. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were quantitatively measured on 230 control subjects. Female lifelong nonsmokers living with two or more smokers during childhood were significantly related to risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.16-8.22]. During adulthood, approximately 2-fold risks were seen among women living with a spouse/domestic partner who smoked for > or =10 years or having a coworker who smoked in an indoor environment for > or =10 years. When all sources of ETS exposure were combined, a statistically significant, dose-dependent association (P for trend = 0.03) was noted in women, with the OR for the highest category of ETS exposure being 5.48 (95% CI, 1.06-28.36). Levels of 4-ABP-Hb adducts varied by ETS exposure status among female control subjects. Mean level was lowest in women never exposed to ETS (16.4 pg/g Hb) and highest in those with current ETS exposure (23.6 pg/g Hb). ETS exposure was associated with neither bladder cancer risk nor 4-ABP-Hb adduct levels in male lifelong nonsmokers. In conclusion, ETS is a risk factor for bladder cancer in women who were lifelong nonusers of any tobacco products.
PubMed ID: 17671226
MeSH Terms: Adult; Aminobiphenyl Compounds/metabolism*; Environmental Exposure*; Female; Hemoglobins/metabolism; Humans; Los Angeles/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Phenotype; Risk Factors; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects*; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/etiology*; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism