Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: Environmental risk factors of rhinitis in early infancy.

Authors: Biagini, Jocelyn M; LeMasters, Grace K; Ryan, Patrick H; Levin, Linda; Reponen, Tiina; Bernstein, David I; Villareal, Manuel; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Burkle, Jeffrey; Lockey, James

Published In Pediatr Allergy Immunol, (2006 Jun)

Abstract: Previous studies of allergic rhinitis in children have not documented the environmental risk factors for infants at age one. We examined the relationship of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and visible mold exposures on the development of allergic rhinitis, rhinitis and upper respiratory infection (URI) in a birth cohort where at least one parent was skin prick test (SPT) positive. ETS exposure and upper respiratory symptoms were obtained by questionnaires. Visible mold was classified as none, low or high during home visit. Infants had a SPT at age one. After adjustment for potential confounders, exposure to >20 cigarettes per day was associated with an increased risk of developing allergic rhinitis at age one [odds ratio (OR)=2.7; 95% CI 1.04-6.8] and rhinitis symptoms during the first year (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). Infants with low (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.3) or high (OR=5.1; 95% CI 2.2-12.1) levels of visible mold in their homes were more likely to have more frequent URI during the first year. Older siblings were protective for development of both rhinitis symptoms and allergic rhinitis. This study suggests that ETS exposure, rather than visible mold, is associated with rhinitis and allergic rhinitis in infants. The analysis also suggests that mold may be a stronger risk factor for URI that ETS.

PubMed ID: 16771781 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Causality; Cohort Studies; Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data*; Female; Fungi/immunology; Humans; Infant; Male; Odds Ratio; Ohio/epidemiology; Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology; Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/epidemiology; Rhinitis/epidemiology*; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data

to Top