Title: 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene stimulates androgen independence in prostate cancer cells through combinatorial activation of mutant androgen receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
Authors: Shah, Supriya; Hess-Wilson, Janet K; Webb, Siobhan; Daly, Hannah; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia; Kim, Jae; Boldison, Joanne; Daaka, Yehia; Knudsen, Karen E
Published In Mol Cancer Res, (2008 Sep)
Abstract: Therapy resistance represents a major clinical challenge in disseminated prostate cancer for which only palliative treatment is available. One phenotype of therapy-resistant tumors is the expression of somatic, gain-of-function mutations of the androgen receptor (AR). Such mutant receptors can use noncanonical endogenous ligands (e.g., estrogen) as agonists, thereby promoting recurrent tumor formation. Additionally, selected AR mutants are sensitized to the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) bisphenol A, present in the environment. Herein, screening of additional EDCs revealed that multiple tumor-derived AR mutants (including T877A, H874Y, L701H, and V715M) are sensitized to activation by the pesticide 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), thus indicating that this agent may impinge on AR signaling in cancer cells. Further investigation showed that DDE induced mutant AR recruitment to the prostate-specific antigen regulatory region, concomitant with an enhancement of target gene expression, and androgen-independent proliferation. By contrast, neither AR activation nor altered cellular proliferation was observed in cells expressing wild-type AR. Activation of signal transduction pathways was also observed based on rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, although only MAPK activation was associated with DDE-induced cellular proliferation. Functional analyses showed that both mutant AR and MAPK pathways contribute to the proliferative action of DDE, as evidenced through selective abrogation of each pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to environmentally relevant doses of EDCs can promote androgen-independent cellular proliferation in tumor cells expressing mutant AR and that DDE uses both mutant AR and MAPK pathways to exert its mitogenic activity.
PubMed ID: 18819937
MeSH Terms: Androgens/pharmacology; Animals; Cell Proliferation; Cercopithecus aethiops; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation; Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism; Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene/pharmacology*; Humans; Immunoblotting; Kidney/metabolism; Kidney/pathology; Luciferases/metabolism; Male; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism*; Mutation/genetics*; Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/metabolism; Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/pathology; Plasmids; Prostate-Specific Antigen/genetics; Prostate-Specific Antigen/metabolism; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism; Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology; Protein Transport/drug effects; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Receptors, Androgen/genetics; Receptors, Androgen/metabolism*; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Signal Transduction; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects; Tumor Cells, Cultured