Title: Sensitive biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): urinary 1-hydroxyprene glucuronide in relation to smoking and low ambient levels of exposure.
Authors: Hu, Y; Zhou, Z; Xue, X; Li, X; Fu, J; Cohen, B; Melikian, A A; Desai, M; Tang, M -S; Huang, X; Roy, N; Sun, J; Nan, P; Qu, Q
Published In Biomarkers, (2006 Jul-Aug)
Abstract: The study was conducted in a Chinese population with occupational or environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A total of 106 subjects were recruited from coke-oven workers (workers), residents in a metropolitan area (residents) and suburban gardeners (gardeners). All subjects were monitored twice for their personal exposures to PAHs. The biological samples were collected for measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and cotinine in urine. The geometric means of personal exposure levels of pyrene, benz(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in workers were 1.470, 0.978 and 0.805 microg m-3, respectively. The corresponding levels in residents were 0.050, 0.034 and 0.025 microg m-3; and those in gardeners were 0.011, 0.020 and 0.008 microg m-3, respectively. The conjugate of 1-OHP with glucuronide (1-OHP-G) is the predominant form of pyrene metabolite in urine and it showed strong associations with exposures not only to pyrene, but also to BaA, BaP and total PAHs. Most importantly, a significant difference in 1-OHP-G was even detected between the subgroups with exposures to BaP at < 0.010 and > 0.010 but < 0.020 microg m-3, suggesting that 1-OHP-G is a good marker that can be used for the risk assessment of BaP exposure at levels currently encountered in ambient air. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses of 1-OHP-G on PAHs exposure indicated that cigarette smoke was a major confounding factor and should be considered and adjusted for while using 1-OHP to estimate PAHs exposure.
PubMed ID: 16908438
MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants; Benz(a)Anthracenes/analysis; Benzo(a)pyrene/analysis; Biomarkers/chemistry*; Coke; Environmental Exposure; Female; Glucuronates/urine*; Glucuronides/urine*; Humans; Male; Occupational Exposure; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis*; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry; Pyrenes/analysis; Risk Assessment; Smoking*