Title: Inhibition of human prenatal biosynthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid by ethanol, ethanol metabolites, and products of lipid peroxidation reactions: a possible role for CYP2E1.
Authors: Khalighi, M; Brzezinski, M R; Chen, H; Juchau, M R
Published In Biochem Pharmacol, (1999 Apr 01)
Abstract: Biotransformation of all-trans-retinol (t-ROH) and all-trans-retinal (t-RAL) to all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA) in human prenatal hepatic tissues (53-84 gestational days) was investigated with HPLC using human adult hepatic tissues as positive controls. Catalysis of the biotransformation of t-ROH by prenatal human cytosolic fractions resulted in accumulation of t-RAL with minimal t-RA. Oxidations of t-ROH catalyzed by prenatal cytosol were supported by both NAD+ and NADP+, although NAD+ was a much better cofactor. In contrast, catalysis of the oxidation of t-RAL to t-RA appeared to be solely NAD+ dependent. Substrate Km values for conversions of t-ROH to t-RAL and of t-RAL to t-RA were 82.4 and 65.8 microM, respectively. At concentrations of 10 and 90 mM, ethanol inhibited the conversion of t-ROH to t-RAL by 25 and 43%, respectively, but did not inhibit the conversion of t-RAL to t-RA significantly. In contrast, acetaldehyde reduced the conversion of t-RAL to t-RA by 25 and 87% at 0.1 and 10 mM respective concentrations. Several alcohols and aldehydes known to be generated from lipid peroxides also exhibited significant inhibition of t-RA biosynthesis in human prenatal hepatic tissues. Among the compounds tested, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) was highly effective in inhibiting the conversion of t-RAL to t-RA. A 20% inhibition was observed at a concentration of only 0.001 mM, and nearly complete inhibition was produced at 0.1 mM. Human fetal and embryonic hepatic tissues each exhibited significant CYP2E1 expression as assessed with chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, a highly sensitive western blotting technique, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RT-PCR), suggesting that lipid peroxidation can be initiated via CYP2E1-catalyzed ethanol oxidation in human embryonic hepatic tissues. In summary, these studies suggest that ethanol may affect the biosynthesis of t-RA in human prenatal hepatic tissues directly and indirectly. Ethanol and its major oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, both inhibit the generation of t-RA. Concurrently, the CYP2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol can initiate lipid peroxidation via generation of a variety of free radicals. The lipid peroxides thereby generated could then be further converted via CYP2E1-catalyzed reactions to alcohols and aldehydes, including 4-HNE, that act as potent inhibitors of t-RA synthesis.
PubMed ID: 10075087
MeSH Terms: Acetaldehyde/metabolism; Acetaldehyde/toxicity; Adult; Alcohols/toxicity; Biotransformation; Chlorzoxazone/metabolism; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/metabolism*; Cytosol/metabolism; Ethanol/metabolism*; Ethanol/toxicity*; Female; Fetus/metabolism; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Kinetics; Lipid Peroxidation*; Liver/metabolism; Oxidation-Reduction; Pregnancy; Retinaldehyde/metabolism; Tretinoin/metabolism*; Vitamin A/metabolism