Title: Comparative genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of four hexavalent chromium compounds in human bronchial cells.
Authors: Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie L; Qin, Qin; Xie, Hong; Katsifis, Spiros P; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise Sr, John Pierce
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2010 Feb 15)
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are well-established human lung carcinogens. Solubility plays an important role in their carcinogenicity with the particulate Cr(VI) compounds being the most carcinogenic. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that zinc chromate is the most potent particulate Cr(VI) compound; however, there are few comparative data to support these observations. The purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of zinc chromate with two other particulate Cr(VI) compounds, barium chromate and lead chromate, and one soluble Cr(VI) compound, sodium chromate. The clastogenic effects of barium chromate and zinc chromate were similar, but lead chromate induced significantly less damage. The levels of DNA damage measured by gamma-H2A.X foci formation were similar for the three particulate chromium compounds. Corrected for chromium uptake differences, we found that zinc chromate and barium chromate were the most cytotoxic, and lead chromate and sodium chromate were less cytotoxic. Zinc chromate was more clastogenic than all other chromium compounds, and lead chromate was the least clastogenic. There was no significant difference between any of the compounds for the induction of DNA double strand breaks. All together, these data suggest that the difference in the carcinogenic potency of zinc chromate over the other chromium compounds is not due solely to a difference in chromium ion uptake and that the zinc cation may in fact have an important role in its carcinogenicity.
PubMed ID: 20000473
MeSH Terms: Bronchi/cytology*; Carcinogens, Environmental/toxicity; Cell Line; Cell Survival/drug effects; Chromium/toxicity*; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Mutagenicity Tests*