Title: Analysis of the concentration-respiratory response among asthmatics following controlled short-term exposures to sulfur dioxide.
Authors: Johns, Douglas O; Svendsgaard, David; Linn, William S
Published In Inhal Toxicol, (2010 Dec)
Abstract: Some of the most compelling evidence of sulfur dioxide (SO(2))-induced respiratory morbidity is derived from a large body of studies involving controlled short-term exposures among groups of asthmatic volunteers. These studies were extensively cited in the recently completed review of the primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for SO(2). Although it is clear from these investigations that exposure to SO(2) may result in a significant increase in bronchoconstriction, there is uncertainty regarding the range of concentrations over which this respiratory response occurs. The objective of this study was to better characterize the concentration-response relationship between SO(2) and measures of bronchoconstriction using individual subject lung function response data. In reviewing studies of asthmatics exposed to SO(2) during 5- to 10-min periods of elevated ventilation, we observed clear and consistent evidence of an increase in the bronchoconstrictive response to SO(2) with increasing exposure concentrations between 0.2 and 1.0 ppm. In a subsequent analysis of individual subject data, it was found that those asthmatics experiencing SO(2)-induced respiratory effects at relatively high exposure concentrations are also more likely than nonresponders to experience similar effects after exposure to lower SO(2) concentrations (≤0.4 ppm). Although the clinical significance of these effects is unsettled, the findings provide additional support to epidemiologic evidence of an association between ambient SO(2) concentration and various measures of respiratory morbidity in the general population.
PubMed ID: 21126154
MeSH Terms: Adult; Asthma/chemically induced; Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/physiopathology*; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Forced Expiratory Volume/drug effects*; Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology; Humans; Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects*; Male; Particulate Matter/adverse effects*; Respiratory Function Tests/methods; Sulfur Dioxide/administration & dosage*; Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects*; Time Factors; Young Adult