Title: Multiple stressor effects of herbicide, pH, and food on wetland zooplankton and a larval amphibian.
Authors: Chen, C Y; Hathaway, K M; Thompson, D G; Folt, C L
Published In Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, (2008 Sep)
Abstract: Interactions of herbicides and natural environmental stressors such as pH and food availability are poorly understood. We tested a chemical formulation of triclopyr (Release) at environmentally relevant test concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg L(-1)) in combination with two levels of pH (pH 5.5 and 7.5), and two levels of food availability (high and low). Population level effects of each stressor alone and in combination with the others were investigated using Simocephalus vetulus, a zooplankton species, and Rana pipiens tadpoles (Gosner stage 25), both common to forest ponds and wetlands. Herbicide treatments resulted in significant decreases in survival of both test species as well as reproduction and development time for S. vetulus at levels 5-10x below predicted worst case environmental concentrations (2.6 mg L(-1)). This laboratory study demonstrates a probable risk of toxic effects of Release herbicide which may be significantly increased by low food availability and by low pH at environmentally relevant concentrations.
PubMed ID: 17904219
MeSH Terms: Animals; Crustacea/drug effects*; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Ecosystem; Glycolates/toxicity*; Herbicides/toxicity*; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Larva/drug effects; Larva/growth & development; Rana pipiens/growth & development*; Reproduction/drug effects; Time Factors; Zooplankton/drug effects*