Title: Carotid artery intima-media thickness in college students: race/ethnicity matters.
Authors: Breton, Carrie V; Wang, Xinhui; Mack, Wendy J; Berhane, Kiros; Lopez, Milena; Islam, Talat S; Feng, Mei; Hodis, Howard N; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed
Published In Atherosclerosis, (2011 Aug)
Abstract: Racial/ethnic differences in common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and in risk factors associated with CIMT have been predominantly observed in middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to characterize racial/ethnic differences CIMT and other cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy, young-adult population.College students were recruited as part of a study to characterize determinants of atherogenesis. Students were eligible if they were lifetime non-smokers, lived in the United States since six months of age, and attended high school in the United States. Blood pressure, heart rate, height, and weight were measured, B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed, questionnaires were administered and a 12-h fasting blood sample was collected. Associations between CIMT and other variables were assessed in 768 students aged 18-25 years using linear regression analysis.In models adjusted for common cardiovascular risk factors, sex exhibited the strongest influence on CIMT, with men having 15.4 μm larger CIMT compared to women (95%CI 6.6, 24.2). Race/ethnicity was also strongly associated with CIMT. African Americans had 17.3 μm greater CIMT (95%CI -0.3, 34.8) compared to non Hispanic Whites, whereas Asians and Hispanic Whites had 14.3 (95%CI -24.3, -4.4) and 15.4 (95%CI -26.2, -4.7) μm smaller CIMT, respectively. BMI and systolic blood pressure were positively associated with CIMT.The risk factors associated with atherogenesis later in life are already present and observable in college-aged young adults, so targeted campaigns to reduce life-long cardiovascular disease burden should be initiated earlier in life to improve public health.
PubMed ID: 21679950
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/statistics & numerical data; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; California/epidemiology; Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging*; Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging; Carotid Artery Diseases/ethnology*; Chi-Square Distribution; Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data*; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data*; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Female; Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data; Humans; Linear Models; Male; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Students/statistics & numerical data*; Tunica Intima/diagnostic imaging*; Tunica Media/diagnostic imaging*; Ultrasonography; Universities/statistics & numerical data*; Young Adult