Title: Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs)-2. Are free hydroxyl radicals generated in aqueous solutions?
Authors: Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry
Published In Environ Sci Technol, (2011 Nov 1)
Abstract: A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (ýýOH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: (1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, (2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and (3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 ýýg/mL EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 ýýL phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals.
PubMed ID: 21942783
MeSH Terms: Chlorophenols/chemistry; Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy; Environmental Monitoring; Free Radicals/chemistry*; Hydroxyl Radical/chemistry*; Models, Chemical