Title: Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: a review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity.
Authors: Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max
Published In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, (2012 Apr 1)
Abstract: Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses - most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.
PubMed ID: 22206756
MeSH Terms: Animals; Calcium/metabolism; Carcinogens/administration & dosage; Carcinogens/metabolism; Carcinogens/toxicity*; Endocytosis; Environmental Pollutants/administration & dosage; Environmental Pollutants/metabolism; Environmental Pollutants/toxicity*; Humans; Nanoparticles/administration & dosage; Nanoparticles/toxicity*; Nickel/administration & dosage; Nickel/metabolism; Nickel/toxicity*; Particle Size; Solubility; Surface Properties; Temperature