Title: Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.
Authors: Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; Lockey, James; Ryan, Patrick; Bernstein, David I; Villareal, Manuel; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Schaffer, Chris; Lemasters, Grace
Published In Environ Int, (2013 Sep)
Abstract: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and other indoor environmental characteristics on eNO levels in seven-year-olds with and without a physician-diagnosis of asthma. The study included 158 children recruited from a birth cohort study, and 32 were physician-diagnosed as asthmatic. The relationship between eNO levels and exposures to home dust streptomycetes, endotoxin, and molds was investigated. Streptomycetes and endotoxin were analyzed both as loads and concentrations in separate models. Dog, cat, and dust mite allergens also were evaluated. In the multivariate exposure models, high streptomycetes loads and concentrations were significantly associated with a decrease in eNO levels in asthmatic (p<0.001) but not in healthy children. The presence of dog allergen, however, was associated with increased levels of eNO (p=0.001). Dust endotoxin was not significant. The relationship between eNO and indoor exposure to common outdoor molds was u-shaped. In non-asthmatic children, none of the exposure variables was significantly associated with eNO levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a significant association between microbial components in the indoor environment and eNO levels in asthmatic children. This study demonstrates the importance of simultaneously assessing multiple home exposures of asthmatic children to better understand opposing effects. Common components of the indoor Streptomyces community may beneficially influence airway inflammation.
PubMed ID: 23807177
MeSH Terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis; Allergens/analysis; Animals; Asthma/physiopathology*; Cats; Child; Dogs; Dust/analysis*; Endotoxins/analysis*; Environmental Exposure*; Exhalation*; Female; Fungi/isolation & purification*; Housing; Humans; Male; Nitric Oxide/analysis*; Pyroglyphidae/immunology; Streptomyces/isolation & purification*