Title: Exacerbation of allergen-induced eczema in TLR4- and TRIF-deficient mice.
Authors: Brandt, Eric B; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey; Rydyznski, Carolyn; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K
Published In J Immunol, (2013 Oct 1)
Abstract: Despite its presence on resident skin cells, the role of TLR4 in skin diseases remains poorly understood. This is highly significant because the skin biome is rich with potential TLR4 agonists. We aimed to establish the contribution of TLR4 to atopic dermatitis and determine the mechanism by which TLR4 acts in an experimental model of atopic dermatitis. MyD88, TLR4, or Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-* (TRIF)-deficient and wild-type mice were epicutaneously exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus allergen over 3 wk. Impaired skin barrier function was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Skin levels of innate and adaptive genes were quantified. In an experimental model of atopic dermatitis, TEWL, allergic sensitization, and epidermal thickness were increased following cutaneous allergen exposure, and these were further enhanced in the absence of TLR4. Increased allergen-induced skin levels of innate (S100A8/A9, IL-1*, TNF-*, and CXCL2) and Th17 genes (IL-17A and IL-17F) were observed in TLR4-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. The absence of MyD88 alleviated disease (decreased TEWL, skin thickness, proinflammatory cytokines), whereas TRIF deficiency exacerbated disease. In conclusion, signaling through the TLR4 and TRIF pathways limits skin barrier dysfunction, cutaneous allergic sensitization, and proinflammatory cytokine production.
PubMed ID: 23997219
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics*; Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology; Allergens/administration & dosage; Allergens/immunology*; Animals; Aspergillus/immunology; Cytokines/metabolism; Dermatitis, Atopic/genetics; Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology; Disease Models, Animal; Eczema/genetics*; Eczema/immunology*; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology; Inflammation Mediators/metabolism; Inflammation/genetics; Inflammation/immunology; Inflammation/metabolism; Interleukin-17/immunology; Interleukin-17/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Skin/immunology; Skin/metabolism; Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics*; Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology