Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum.

Authors: Guerra, R; Vera-Aguilar, E; Uribe-Ramirez, M; Gookin, G; Camacho, J; Osornio-Vargas, A R; Mugica-Alvarez, V; Angulo-Olais, R; Campbell, A; Froines, J; Kleinman, T M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A

Published In Toxicol Lett, (2013 Oct 24)

Abstract: To study central nervous system airborne PM related subchronic toxicity, SD male rats were exposed for eight weeks to either coarse (32 μg/m³), fine (178 μg/m³) or ultrafine (107 μg/m³) concentrated PM or filtered air. Different brain regions (olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus), were harvested from the rats following exposure to airborne PM. Subsequently, prooxidant (HO-1 and SOD-2), and inflammatory markers (IL-1β and TNFα), apoptotic (caspase 3), and unfolded protein response (UPR) markers (XBP-1S and BiP), were also measured using real-time PCR. Activation of nuclear transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB, associated with antioxidant and inflammation processes, respectively, were also analyzed by GSMA. Ultrafine PM increased HO-1 and SOD-2 mRNA levels in the striatum and hippocampus, in the presence of Nrf-2 activation. Also, ultrafine PM activated NF-κB and increased IL-1β and TNFα in the striatum. Activation of UPR was observed after exposure to coarse PM through the increment of XBP-1S and BiP in the striatum, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant response markers HO-1 and SOD-2. Our results indicate that exposure to different size fractions of PM may induce physiological changes (in a neuroanatomical manner) in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically within the striatum, where inflammation, oxidative stress and UPR signals were effectively activated.

PubMed ID: 23892126 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants/chemistry; Air Pollutants/toxicity*; Animals; Biomarkers/metabolism; Central Nervous System Agents/chemistry; Central Nervous System Agents/toxicity*; Corpus Striatum/drug effects*; Corpus Striatum/immunology; DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Heat-Shock Proteins/biosynthesis; Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics; Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism; Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/biosynthesis; Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics; Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism; Male; Mexico; Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism; Neurons/drug effects*; Neurons/immunology; Oxidative Stress/drug effects*; Particle Size; Particulate Matter/chemistry; Particulate Matter/toxicity*; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors; Superoxide Dismutase/biosynthesis; Superoxide Dismutase/genetics; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism; Transcription Factors/biosynthesis; Transcription Factors/genetics; Transcription Factors/metabolism; Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects*; Up-Regulation/drug effects; X-Box Binding Protein 1

to Top