Title: The impact of exposure-biased sampling designs on detection of gene-environment interactions in case-control studies with potential exposure misclassification.
Authors: Stenzel, Stephanie L; Ahn, Jaeil; Boonstra, Philip S; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar
Published In Eur J Epidemiol, (2015 May)
Abstract: With limited funding and biological specimen availability, choosing an optimal sampling design to maximize power for detecting gene-by-environment (G-E) interactions is critical. Exposure-enriched sampling is often used to select subjects with rare exposures for genotyping to enhance power for tests of G-E effects. However, exposure misclassification (MC) combined with biased sampling can affect characteristics of tests for G-E interaction and joint tests for marginal association and G-E interaction. Here, we characterize the impact of exposure-biased sampling under conditions of perfect exposure information and exposure MC on properties of several methods for conducting inference. We assess the Type I error, power, bias, and mean squared error properties of case-only, case-control, and empirical Bayes methods for testing/estimating G-E interaction and a joint test for marginal G (or E) effect and G-E interaction across three biased sampling schemes. Properties are evaluated via empirical simulation studies. With perfect exposure information, exposure-enriched sampling schemes enhance power as compared to random selection of subjects irrespective of exposure prevalence but yield bias in estimation of the G-E interaction and marginal E parameters. Exposure MC modifies the relative performance of sampling designs when compared to the case of perfect exposure information. Those conducting G-E interaction studies should be aware of exposure MC properties and the prevalence of exposure when choosing an ideal sampling scheme and method for characterizing G-E interactions and joint effects.
PubMed ID: 24894824
MeSH Terms: Bayes Theorem; Bias; Case-Control Studies; Computer Simulation*; Environment*; Environmental Exposure; Epidemiologic Methods; Gene-Environment Interaction*; Genes*; Genotype; Humans; Models, Genetic*; Selection Bias