Title: Human aldo-keto reductases and the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Authors: Penning, Trevor M
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2014 Nov 17)
Abstract: Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are promiscuous NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductases implicated in the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols to the corresponding o-quinones with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PAH o-quinones are Michael acceptors and can form adducts but are also redox-active and enter into futile redox cycles to amplify ROS formation. Evidence exists to support this metabolic pathway in humans. The human recombinant AKR1A1 and AKR1C1-AKR1C4 enzymes all catalyze the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols to PAH o-quinones. Many human AKRs also catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of the o-quinone products to air-sensitive catechols, exacerbating ROS formation. Moreover, this pathway of PAH activation occurs in a panel of human lung cell lines, resulting in the production of ROS and oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Using stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, this pathway of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) metabolism was found to contribute equally with the diol-epoxide pathway to the activation of this human carcinogen in human lung cells. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of anti-B[a]P-diol epoxide with B[a]P-7,8-dione on p53 showed that the o-quinone produced by AKRs was the more potent mutagen, provided that it was permitted to redox cycle, and that the mutations observed were G to T transversions, reminiscent of those observed in human lung cancer. It is concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation of PAH in human lung cell lines and that they may contribute to the causation of human lung cancer.
PubMed ID: 25279998
MeSH Terms: Aldehyde Reductase/metabolism*; Aldo-Keto Reductases; Animals; Biocatalysis; Cell Line; DNA Adducts/metabolism; Environmental Pollutants/chemistry; Environmental Pollutants/metabolism*; Environmental Pollutants/toxicity; Humans; Lung Neoplasms/genetics; Lung Neoplasms/metabolism; Molecular Structure; Oxidation-Reduction; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism*; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/toxicity; Signal Transduction