Title: A novel post-translational modification of nucleolin, SUMOylation at Lys-294, mediates arsenite-induced cell death by regulating gadd45α mRNA stability.
Authors: Zhang, Dongyun; Liang, Yuguang; Xie, Qipeng; Gao, Guangxun; Wei, Jinlong; Huang, Haishan; Li, Jingxia; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu
Published In J Biol Chem, (2015 Feb 20)
Abstract: Nucleolin is a ubiquitously expressed protein and participates in many important biological processes, such as cell cycle regulation and ribosomal biogenesis. The activity of nucleolin is regulated by intracellular localization and post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, methylation, and ADP-ribosylation. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a category of recently verified forms of post-translational modifications and exerts various effects on the target proteins. In the studies reported here, we discovered SUMOylational modification of human nucleolin protein at Lys-294, which facilitated the mRNA binding property of nucleolin by maintaining its nuclear localization. In response to arsenic exposure, nucleolin-SUMO was induced and promoted its binding with gadd45α mRNA, which increased gadd45α mRNA stability and protein expression, subsequently causing GADD45α-mediated cell death. On the other hand, ectopic expression of Mn-SOD attenuated the arsenite-generated superoxide radical level, abrogated nucleolin-SUMO, and in turn inhibited arsenite-induced apoptosis by reducing GADD45α expression. Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate that nucleolin-SUMO at K294R plays a critical role in its nucleus sequestration and gadd45α mRNA binding activity. This novel biological function of nucleolin is distinct from its conventional role as a proto-oncogene. Therefore, our findings here not only reveal a new modification of nucleolin protein and its novel functional paradigm in mRNA metabolism but also expand our understanding of the dichotomous roles of nucleolin in terms of cancer development, which are dependent on multiple intracellular conditions and consequently the appropriate regulations of its modifications, including SUMOylation.
PubMed ID: 25561743
MeSH Terms: 3T3 Cells; Animals; Arsenites/pharmacology*; Cell Cycle Proteins/biosynthesis*; Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics; Cell Death/drug effects; Cell Death/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Lysine/genetics; Lysine/metabolism; Mice; Nuclear Proteins/biosynthesis*; Nuclear Proteins/genetics; Phosphoproteins/genetics; Phosphoproteins/metabolism*; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects*; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/genetics; RNA Stability/drug effects*; RNA Stability/genetics; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Messenger/metabolism*; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism*; Sumoylation/drug effects*; Sumoylation/genetics; Superoxide Dismutase/genetics; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism; Teratogens/pharmacology*