Title: Chromium Is Elevated in Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Skin Tissue and Is Genotoxic to Fin Whale Skin Cells.
Authors: Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Wise Sr, John Pierce
Published In Biol Trace Elem Res, (2015 Jul)
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is present in the marine environment and is a known carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. Cr(VI) is the form of chromium that is well absorbed through the cell membrane. It is also the most prevalent form in seawater. We measured the total Cr levels in skin biopsies obtained from healthy free-ranging fin whales from the Gulf of Maine and found elevated levels relative to marine mammals in other parts of the world. The levels in fin whale biopsies ranged from 1.71 to 19.6 μg/g with an average level of 10.07 μg/g. We also measured the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Cr(VI) in fin whale skin cells. We found that particulate and soluble Cr(VI) are both cytotoxic and genotoxic to fin whale skin cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentration range used in our cell culture studies used environmentally relevant concentrations based on the biopsy measurements. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for whales in the Gulf of Maine.
PubMed ID: 25805270
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cell Survival/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Chromium/chemistry; Chromium/pharmacokinetics; Chromium/toxicity*; Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Fibroblasts/drug effects*; Fibroblasts/metabolism; Fibroblasts/pathology; Fin Whale*/metabolism; Metaphase/drug effects; Mutagens/chemistry; Mutagens/pharmacokinetics; Mutagens/toxicity*; Skin/drug effects*; Skin/metabolism; Skin/pathology; Solubility; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry; Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics; Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity*