Title: Time dependency of craving and response inhibition during nicotine abstinence.
Authors: Tsaur, Stephen; Strasser, Andrew A; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Evans, Gretchen C; Ashare, Rebecca L
Published In Addict Res Theory, (2015)
Abstract: Nicotine withdrawal produces increased craving for cigarettes and deficits in response inhibition, and these withdrawal symptoms are predictive of relapse. Although it is well-established that these symptoms emerge early during abstinence, there is mixed evidence regarding whether they occur simultaneously. Given the importance of the early withdrawal period, this study examined craving and response inhibition at 24h and 72h abstinence.Twenty-one non-treatment seeking adult smokers were evaluated at baseline, 24h, and 72h abstinence for craving (Questionnaire on Smoking Urges - Brief) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task, Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task). Generalized linear regression models were used for primary outcomes, and Pearson correlations for examining the association between craving and response inhibition.Factor 2 craving (anticipated relief of negative affect) increased from baseline to 24h abstinent (p=0.004), which subsided by 72h (p=0.08). Deficits in response inhibition measured by the Stop Signal Task were observed at 72h (p=0.046), but not 24h (p=0.318). No correlation was found between response inhibition and craving at any time point (p-values>0.19), except between the Stroop Task and factor 1 craving at baseline (p=0.025).Factor 2 craving peaked at 24h, whereas deficits in response inhibition did not emerge until 72h, indicating that need to target craving and cognitive function during early abstinence may not occur simultaneously. Further characterizing the time course of withdrawal symptoms may guide development of targeted treatments for smoking cessation.
PubMed ID: 26052265
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication