Title: Nitric oxide-induced mutations in the HPRT gene of human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells and in Salmonella typhimurium.
Authors: Zhuang, J C; Wright, T L; deRojas-Walker, T; Tannenbaum, S R; Wogan, G N
Published In Environ Mol Mutagen, (2000)
Abstract: Characterization of mutations induced by NO in different experimental systems will facilitate elucidation of mechanisms underlying its genotoxicity. The mutagenic specificity of NO in human cells is of particular interest in view of its potential role in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. We compared mutagenesis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells and in Salmonella typhimurium induced by exposure to NO delivered into the medium at rates approximating its production by activated macrophages. Exposure of TK6 cells continuously for 60 min decreased viability by 88%, and survivors exhibited a sixfold increase in mutant fraction in the hprt gene. Independent mutants were isolated and mutations characterized by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Among a total of 68 mutants analyzed, RT-PCR products were obtained in 41 (60%), and cDNA sequencing revealed that 26 (63%) of them contained mutations located in the hprt coding region. Base substitutions were present in 18 mutants, 12 occurring at A:T base pairs. Seven mutants contained deletions of 1-27 bp and one a 13-bp insertion; the 15 remaining RT-PCR products contained whole-exon deletions, 14 involving single exons. Six tester strains of S. typhimurium, each containing one of the six possible point mutations in the target codon of a gene in the histidine biosynthetic pathway, were similarly treated with NO and induction of mutation was detected by reversion to histidine auxotrophy. Significant increases were observed in frequencies of each of the six possible base mutations, with the highest occurring in G:C --> A:T transitions. The pattern of NO-induced hprt mutations in TK6 cells was similar to a recently published spectrum in spontaneous mutants, suggesting that reactive species derived from NO may contribute to spontaneous mutagenesis of the endogenous hprt gene in human cells.
PubMed ID: 10692226
MeSH Terms: Base Sequence; Cell Line; Cell Survival/drug effects; DNA Primers; Humans; Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics*; Lymphocytes/drug effects*; Lymphocytes/enzymology; Mutation*; Nitric Oxide/pharmacology*; Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects*; Salmonella typhimurium/enzymology