Title: Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity.
Authors: Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max
Published In Curr Environ Health Rep, (2015 Sep)
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure are mitigated by reduction in the gut; however, a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research.
PubMed ID: 26231506
MeSH Terms: Animals; Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects; Chromium/adverse effects*; DNA Damage*; Drinking Water/chemistry; Epigenomics; Food Contamination; Humans; Mice; Rats; Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics; Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity