Title: Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences.
Authors: Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J
Published In Am J Respir Crit Care Med, (2015 Nov 01)
Abstract: The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure.We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort.Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined.Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys.Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
PubMed ID: 26176842
MeSH Terms: Adult; Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data*; Asthma/epidemiology*; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data*; Particulate Matter/analysis*; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology*; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; United States/epidemiology; Urban Health/statistics & numerical data*; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data