Title: Wild type mesenchymal cells contribute to the lung pathology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Authors: Clements, Debbie; Dongre, Arundhati; Krymskaya, Vera P; Johnson, Simon R
Published In PLoS One, (2015)
Abstract: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease leading to lungs cysts and progressive respiratory failure. Cells of unknown origin accumulate in the lungs forming nodules and eventually resulting in lung cysts. These LAM cells are described as clonal with bi-allelic mutations in TSC-2 resulting in constitutive mTOR activation. However LAM nodules are heterogeneous structures containing cells of different phenotypes; we investigated whether recruited wild type cells were also present alongside mutation bearing cells. Cells were isolated from LAM lung tissue, cultured and characterised using microscopy, immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Fibroblast-like cells were identified in lung tissue using immunohistochemical markers. Fibroblast chemotaxis toward LAM cells was examined using migration assays and 3D cell culture. Fibroblast-like cells were obtained from LAM lungs: these cells had fibroblast-like morphology, actin stress fibres, full length tuberin protein and suppressible ribosomal protein S6 activity suggesting functional TSC-1/2 protein. Fibroblast Activation Protein, Fibroblast Specific Protein/S100A4 and Fibroblast Surface Protein all stained subsets of cells within LAM nodules from multiple donors. In a mouse model of LAM, tuberin positive host derived cells were also present within lung nodules of xenografted TSC-2 null cells. In vitro, LAM 621-101 cells and fibroblasts formed spontaneous aggregates over three days in 3D co-cultures. Fibroblast chemotaxis was enhanced two fold by LAM 621-101 conditioned medium (p=0.05), which was partially dependent upon LAM cell derived CXCL12. Further, LAM cell conditioned medium also halved fibroblast apoptosis under serum free conditions (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that LAM nodules contain a significant population of fibroblast-like cells. Analogous to cancer associated fibroblasts, these cells may provide a permissive environment for LAM cell growth and contribute to the lung pathology of LAM lung disease.
PubMed ID: 25978616
MeSH Terms: Animals; Apoptosis; Blotting, Western; Cells, Cultured; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Fibroblasts/pathology; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Humans; Lung/cytology; Lung/pathology*; Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/pathology*; Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology*; Mice