Title: Chemical characterization and in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particulate matter generated under varying conditions.
Authors: Fox, Julie Richman; Cox, David P; Drury, Bertram E; Gould, Timothy R; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Paulsen, Michael H; Sheppard, Lianne; Simpson, Christopher D; Stewart, James A; Larson, Timothy V; Kaufman, Joel D
Published In Air Qual Atmos Health, (2015 Oct 01)
Abstract: Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution). Selected exposure concentrations of both diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and DE gases, DEP oxidative reactivity via DTT activity, and in vitro DEP toxicity in murine endothelial cells were measured for each DE atmosphere. Cell toxicity was assessed via measurement of cell proliferation (colony formation assay), cell viability (MTT assay), and wound healing (scratch assay). Differences in DE composition were observed as a function of engine load. The mean 1-nitropyrene concentration was 15 times higher and oxidative reactivity was two times higher for low engine load versus high load. There were no substantial differences in measured toxicity among the three DE exposure parameters. These results indicate that alteration of applied engine load shifts the composition and can modify the biological reactivity of DE. While engine conditions did not affect the selected in vitro toxicity measures, the change in oxidative reactivity suggests that toxicological studies with DE need to take into account engine conditions in characterizing biological effects.
PubMed ID: 26539254
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication