Title: Noninvasive effects measurements for air pollution human studies: methods, analysis, and implications.
Authors: Mirowsky, Jaime; Gordon, Terry
Published In J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, (2015 Jul-Aug)
Abstract: Human exposure studies, compared with cell and animal models, are heavily relied upon to study the associations between health effects in humans and air pollutant inhalation. Human studies vary in exposure methodology, with some work conducted in controlled settings, whereas other studies are conducted in ambient environments. Human studies can also vary in the health metrics explored, as there exists a myriad of health effect end points commonly measured. In this review, we compiled mini reviews of the most commonly used noninvasive health effect end points that are suitable for panel studies of air pollution, broken into cardiovascular end points, respiratory end points, and biomarkers of effect from biological specimens. Pertinent information regarding each health end point and the suggested methods for mobile collection in the field are assessed. In addition, the clinical implications for each health end point are summarized, along with the factors identified that can modify each measurement. Finally, the important research findings regarding each health end point and air pollutant exposures were reviewed. It appeared that most of the adverse health effects end points explored were found to positively correlate with pollutant levels, although differences in study design, pollutants measured, and study population were found to influence the magnitude of these effects. Thus, this review is intended to act as a guide for researchers interested in conducting human exposure studies of air pollutants while in the field, although there can be a wider application for using these end points in many epidemiological study designs.
PubMed ID: 25605444
MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants/adverse effects*; Air Pollutants/analysis; Air Pollution/adverse effects*; Air Pollution/analysis; Biomarkers/metabolism; Humans; Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects*; Inhalation Exposure/analysis; Lung Diseases/diagnosis; Lung Diseases/etiology*; Lung Diseases/metabolism; Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis; Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism; Risk Factors