Title: Hexavalent chromium induces chromosome instability in human urothelial cells.
Authors: Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie L; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M; Wise Sr, John Pierce
Published In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, (2016 Apr 01)
Abstract: Numerous metals are well-known human bladder carcinogens. Despite the significant occupational and public health concern of metals and bladder cancer, the carcinogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Chromium, in particular, is a metal of concern as incidences of bladder cancer have been found elevated in chromate workers, and there is an increasing concern for patients with metal hip implants. However, the impact of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) on bladder cells has not been studied. We compared chromate toxicity in two bladder cell lines; primary human urothelial cells and hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cells. Cr(VI) induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in chromosome damage in both cell lines, with the hTERT-immortalized cells exhibiting more chromosome damage than the primary cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) also induced a concentration-dependent increase in aneuploid metaphases in both cell lines which was not observed after a 24h exposure. Aneuploidy induction was higher in the hTERT-immortalized cells. When we correct for uptake, Cr(VI) induces a similar amount of chromosome damage and aneuploidy suggesting that the differences in Cr(VI) sensitivity between the two cells lines were due to differences in uptake. The increase in chromosome instability after chronic chromate treatment suggests this may be a mechanism for chromate-induced bladder cancer, specifically, and may be a mechanism for metal-induced bladder cancer, in general.
PubMed ID: 26908176
MeSH Terms: Cells, Cultured; Chromium/toxicity*; Chromosomal Instability/drug effects*; Chromosomal Instability/physiology*; DNA Damage/drug effects; DNA Damage/physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Epithelial Cells/drug effects; Epithelial Cells/pathology; Epithelial Cells/physiology; Humans; Urothelium/drug effects*; Urothelium/pathology; Urothelium/physiology*