Title: Siderophore-mediated iron removal from chrysotile: Implications for asbestos toxicity reduction and bioremediation.
Authors: Mohanty, Sanjay K; Gonneau, Cedric; Salamatipour, Ashkan; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Casper, Brenda; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Willenbring, Jane K
Published In J Hazard Mater, (2018 Jan 05)
Abstract: Asbestos fibers are highly toxic (Group 1 carcinogen) due to their high aspect ratio, durability, and the presence of iron. In nature, plants, fungi, and microorganisms release exudates, which can alter the physical and chemical properties of soil minerals including asbestos minerals. We examined whether exudates from bacteria and fungi at environmentally relevant concentrations can alter chrysotile, the most widely used asbestos mineral, and lower its toxicity. We monitored the release of iron from chrysotile in the presence of organic acid ligands and iron-specific siderophores derived from bacteria and fungi and measured any change in fiber toxicity toward peritoneal macrophages harvested from mice. Both fungal and bacterial siderophores increased the removal of iron from asbestos fibers. In contrast, organic acid ligands at environmentally relevant concentrations neither released iron from fibers nor helped in siderophore-mediated iron removal. Removal of plant-available or exchangeable iron did not diminish iron dissolution by both types of siderophores, which indicates that siderophores can effectively remove structural iron from chrysotile fibers. Removal of iron by siderophore lowered the fiber toxicity; fungal siderophore appears to be more effective than bacterial siderophore in lowering the toxicity. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to siderophores, not organic acids, in the soil environment decreases asbestos fiber toxicity and possibly lowers the health risks. Thus, bioremediation should be explored as a viable strategy to manage asbestos-contaminated sites such as Brownfield sites, which are currently left untreated despite dangers to surrounding communities.
PubMed ID: 28797944
MeSH Terms: Animals; Asbestos, Serpentine/chemistry*; Asbestos, Serpentine/toxicity; Bacteria/chemistry; Biodegradation, Environmental; Fungi/chemistry; Iron/chemistry*; Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects; Malonates/chemistry; Mice; Oxalic Acid/chemistry; Siderophores/chemistry*