Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: Developmental manganese exposure in combination with developmental stress and iron deficiency: Effects on behavior and monoamines.

Authors: Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Davenport, Laurie L; Gutierrez, Arnold; Hufgard, Jillian R; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

Published In Neurotoxicol Teratol, (2016 Jul-Aug)

Abstract: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposures, however, Mn exposure seldom occurs in isolation. It often co-occurs in populations with inadequate dietary iron (Fe) and limited resources that result in stress. Subclinical FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and exacerbates Mn toxicity by increasing Mn bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated Mn overexposure (MnOE) in rats in combination with Fe deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress, for which we used barren cage rearing. For barren cage rearing (BAR), rats were housed in cages with a wire grid floor or standard bedding material (STD) from embryonic day (E)7 through postnatal day (P)28. For FeD, dams were fed a 90% Fe-deficient NIH-07 diet from E15 through P28. Within each litter, different offspring were treated with 100mg/kg Mn (MnOE) or vehicle (VEH) by gavage every other day from P4-28. Behavior was assessed at two ages and consisted of: open-field, anxiety tests, acoustic startle response (ASR) with prepulse inhibition (PPI), sociability, sucrose preference, tapered beam crossing, and the Porsolt's forced swim test. MnOE had main effects of decreasing activity, ASR, social preference, and social novelty. BAR and FeD transiently modified MnOE effects. BAR groups weighed less and showed decreased anxiety in the elevated zero maze, had increased ASR and decreased PPI, and exhibited reduced sucrose preference compared with the STD groups. FeD animals also weighed less and had increased slips on the tapered beam. Most of the monoamine effects were dopaminergic and occurred in the MnOE groups. The results showed that Mn is a pervasive developmental neurotoxin, the effects of which are modulated by FeD and/or BAR cage rearing.

PubMed ID: 27302314 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid/metabolism; Animals; Anxiety/chemically induced; Behavior, Animal*; Biogenic Monoamines/metabolism*; Dopamine/metabolism; Female; Hematocrit; Hippocampus/metabolism*; Iron/deficiency*; Male; Manganese/toxicity*; Motor Activity; Neostriatum/metabolism*; Norepinephrine/metabolism; Prepulse Inhibition; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Serotonin/metabolism; Social Behavior; Stress, Psychological*

to Top