Title: Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: A longitudinal analysis.
Authors: Wang, Pan; Tuvblad, Catherine; Younan, Diana; Franklin, Meredith; Lurmann, Fred; Wu, Jun; Baker, Laura A; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan
Published In PLoS One, (2017)
Abstract: Mounting evidence indicates that early-life exposure to particulate air pollutants pose threats to children's cognitive development, but studies about the neurotoxic effects associated with exposures during adolescence remain unclear. We examined whether exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) at residential locations affects intelligence quotient (IQ) during pre-/early- adolescence (ages 9-11) and emerging adulthood (ages 18-20) in a demographically-diverse population (N = 1,360) residing in Southern California. Increased ambient PM2.5 levels were associated with decreased IQ scores. This association was more evident for Performance IQ (PIQ), but less for Verbal IQ, assessed by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. For each inter-quartile (7.73 μg/m3) increase in one-year PM2.5 preceding each assessment, the average PIQ score decreased by 3.08 points (95% confidence interval = [-6.04, -0.12]) accounting for within-family/within-individual correlations, demographic characteristics, family socioeconomic status (SES), parents' cognitive abilities, neighborhood characteristics, and other spatial confounders. The adverse effect was 150% greater in low SES families and 89% stronger in males, compared to their counterparts. Better understanding of the social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5-IQ effects may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms and shed light on prevention strategies.
PubMed ID: 29206872
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; Child; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Particulate Matter/toxicity*; Sex Characteristics*; Social Class*; Young Adult