Title: Implications of Combined Exposure to Household Air Pollution and HIV on Neurocognition in Children.
Authors: Suter, Megan K; Karr, Catherine J; John-Stewart, Grace C; Gómez, Laurén A; Moraa, Hellen; Nyatika, Duke; Wamalwa, Dalton; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D; Ghodsian, Niloufar; Boivin, Michael J; Bangirana, Paul; Benki-Nugent, Sarah
Published In Int J Environ Res Public Health, (2018 01 20)
Abstract: Air pollution exposure and HIV infection can each cause neurocognitive insult in children. The purpose of this study was to test whether children with combined high air pollution exposure and perinatal HIV infection have even greater risk of neurocognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-uninfected unexposed (HUU) and HIV-infected children and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a detailed neuropsychological battery to evaluate neurocognitive functioning in several domains. We measured caregiver 24-h personal CO exposure as a proxy for child CO exposure and child urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Median 24-h caregiver CO exposure was 6.1 and 3.7 ppm for 45 HIV-infected (mean age 6.6 years) and 49 HUU (mean age 6.7 years), respectively; 48.5% of HIV-infected and 38.6% of HUU had caregiver 24-h CO levels exceeding the WHO recommended level. Median 1-OHP exposure was 0.6 and 0.7 µmol/mol creatinine among HIV-infected and HUU children, respectively. HIV-infected children with high urinary 1-OHP (exceeding 0.68 µmol/mol creatinine) had significantly lower global cognition (p = 0.04), delayed memory (p = 0.01), and attention scores (p = 0.003). Among HUU children, urinary 1-OHP and caregiver 24-h caregiver CO were not significantly associated with neurocognitive function. Our findings suggest that combined chronic exposure to air pollutants and perinatal HIV infection may be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes. High prevalence of air pollution exposure highlights the need to reduce these exposures.
PubMed ID: 29361707
MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants/adverse effects; Air Pollutants/toxicity*; Air Pollution/adverse effects*; Child; Cognition Disorders/etiology; Cognition Disorders/physiopathology*; Cross-Sectional Studies; Environmental Exposure/adverse effects*; Female; HIV Infections/complications; HIV Infections/physiopathology*; Humans; Kenya; Male; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/adverse effects; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/toxicity*