Title: Effect of a tissue selective estrogen complex on breast cancer: Role of unique properties of conjugated equine estrogen.
Authors: Yue, Wei; Wang, Jiping; Atkins, Kristen A; Bottalico, Lisa; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A; Santen, Richard J
Published In Int J Cancer, (2018 09 01)
Abstract: The Women's Health Initiative studies reported that the menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) regimen containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate increased, whereas CEE alone reduced breast cancer incidence. These observations suggest the possibility that CEE might exert unique actions on breast and also suggest the need to eliminate the progestogen from MHT regimens. A MHT regimen called a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), containing CEE plus bazedoxifene (BZA), to avoid the need for a progestogen, was developed and FDA approved. Our study addressed two questions regarding this TSEC: (i) whether CEE exert effects on breast cancer which differ from those of estradiol (E2 ) and (ii) whether BZA antagonize the effects of E2 and CEE on breast cancer? Two rodent models (NMU and ACI) were used to compare the effect of CEE with E2 on mammary tumor formation, proliferation and apoptosis. In both the NMU and ACI models, E2 significantly increased tumor incidence and multiplicity whereas in striking contrast CEE did not, even though the estrogenic effects of CEE and E2 on uterine weight were identical. Mechanistically E2 blocked whereas CEE stimulated apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in ACI animals and only E2 stimulated proliferation (Ki67). BZA exerted highly potent anti-estrogenic effects on tumors by completely blocking palpable tumor formation. These data suggest that the CEE/BZA TSEC may be a safer, breast-antagonistic, MHT agent for women and might have potential to prevent breast cancer while relieving menopausal symptoms.
PubMed ID: 29577272
MeSH Terms: Animals; Apoptosis; Carcinogens/toxicity; Cell Proliferation; Drug Therapy, Combination; Estrogen Replacement Therapy*; Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)/pharmacology*; Estrogens/pharmacology*; Female; Indoles/pharmacology*; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/chemically induced; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/drug therapy*; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/metabolism; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/pathology; Methylnitrosourea/toxicity; Progestins/metabolism; Rats; Rats, Inbred ACI; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology