Title: Halogen Inhalation-Induced Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Authors: Zhou, Ting; Song, Wei-Feng; Shang, You; Yao, Shang-Long; Matalon, Sadis
Published In Chin Med J (Engl), (2018 May 20)
Abstract: Exposure to halogens, such as chlorine or bromine, results in environmental and occupational hazard to the lung and other organs. Chlorine is highly toxic by inhalation, leading to dyspnea, hypoxemia, airway obstruction, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although bromine is less reactive and oxidative than chlorine, inhalation also results in bronchospasm, airway hyperresponsiveness, ARDS, and even death. Both halogens have been shown to damage the systemic circulation and result in cardiac injury as well. There is no specific antidote for these injuries since the mechanisms are largely unknown.This review was based on articles published in PubMed databases up to January, 2018, with the following keywords: "chlorine," "bromine," "lung injury," and "ARDS."The original articles and reviews including the topics were the primary references.Based on animal studies, it is found that inhaled chlorine will form chlorine-derived oxidative products that mediate postexposure toxicity; thus, potential treatments will target the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by chlorine. Antioxidants, cAMP-elevating agents, anti-inflammatory agents, nitric oxide-modulating agents, and high-molecular-weight hyaluronan have shown promising effects in treating acute chlorine injury. Elevated free heme level is involved in acute lung injury caused by bromine inhalation. Hemopexin, a heme-scavenging protein, when administered postexposure, decreases lung injury and improves survival.At present, there is an urgent need for additional research to develop specific therapies that target the basic mechanisms by which halogens damage the lungs and systemic organs.
PubMed ID: 29722341
MeSH Terms: Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced*; Animals; Chlorine/toxicity; Halogens/toxicity*; Humans; Lung/drug effects; Lung/pathology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/drug therapy*