Title: Rapamycin-independent IGF2 expression in Tsc2-null mouse embryo fibroblasts and human lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.
Authors: Himes, Blanca E; Obraztsova, Kseniya; Lian, Lurong; Shumyatcher, Maya; Rue, Ryan; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Hur, Stella K; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Evans, Jilly F; Krymskaya, Vera P
Published In PLoS One, (2018)
Abstract: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, almost exclusively female lung disease linked to inactivating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor gene that controls cell metabolic state and growth via regulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1) signaling. mTORC1 is frequently activated in human cancers and, although the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin has a cytostatic effect, it is, in general, unable to elicit a robust curative effect or tumor regression. Using RNA-Seq, we identified (1) Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF2) as one of the genes with the highest fold-change difference between human TSC2-null and TSC2-expressing angiomyolipoma cells from a patient with LAM, and (2) the mouse IGF2 homolog Igf2, as a top-ranking gene according to fold change between Tsc2-/- and Tsc2+/+ mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We extended transcript-level findings to protein level, observing increased Igf2 protein expression and Igf2 secretion by Tsc2-/- MEFs. Increased Igf2 expression was not due to epigenetic imprinting, but was partially mediated through the Stat3 pathway and was completely insensitive to rapamycin treatment. An siRNA-mediated decrease of Igf2 resulted in decreased Stat3 phosphorylation, suggesting presence of an autocrine Igf2/Stat3 amplification cycle in Tsc2-/- MEFs. In human pulmonary LAM lesions and metastatic cell clusters, high levels of IGF2 were associated with mTORC1 activation. In addition, treatment of three primary IGF2-expressing LAM lung cell lines with rapamycin did not result in IGF2 level changes. Thus, targeting of IGF2 signaling may be of therapeutic value to LAM patients, particularly those who are unresponsive to rapamycin.
PubMed ID: 29758070
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism*; Embryo, Mammalian/pathology; Fibroblasts/metabolism*; Fibroblasts/pathology; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*; Humans; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/biosynthesis*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics; Lung Neoplasms/genetics; Lung Neoplasms/metabolism*; Lung Neoplasms/pathology; Lymphangioleiomyomatosis; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Signal Transduction*; Sirolimus/pharmacology*; Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/deficiency*