Title: Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations.
Authors: Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P
Published In Environ Pollut, (2017 Nov)
Abstract: The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmaxtotal) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RRtissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action.
PubMed ID: 28764109
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cosmetics/analysis; Cosmetics/toxicity*; Environmental Monitoring*; Fishes/physiology*; Humans; Models, Biological; Pharmaceutical Preparations*; Waste Water; Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity*