Title: Sphingosine Kinase Regulates Neuropeptide Secretion During the Oxidative Stress-Response Through Intertissue Signaling.
Authors: Kim, Sungjin; Sieburth, Derek
Published In J Neurosci, (2018 09 19)
Abstract: The Nrf2 antioxidant transcription factor promotes redox homeostasis in part through reciprocal signaling between neurons and neighboring cells, but the signals involved in intertissue signaling in response to Nrf2 activation are not well defined. In Caenorhabditis elegans, activation of SKN-1/Nrf2 in the intestine negatively regulates neuropeptide secretion from motor neurons. Here, we show that sphingosine kinase (SPHK-1) functions downstream of SKN-1/Nrf2 in the intestine to regulate neuropeptide secretion from motor neurons during the oxidative stress response in C. elegans hermaphrodites. SPHK-1 localizes to mitochondria in the intestine and SPHK-1 mitochondrial localization and kinase activity are essential for its function in regulating motor neuron function. SPHK-1 is recruited to mitochondria from cytosolic pools and its mitochondrial abundance is negatively regulated by acute or chronic SKN-1 activation. Finally, the regulation of motor function by SKN-1 requires the activation of the p38 MAPK cascade in the intestine and occurs through controlling the biogenesis or maturation of dense core vesicles in motor neurons. These findings show that the inhibition of SPHK-1 in the intestine by SKN-1 negatively regulates neuropeptide secretion from motor neurons, revealing a new mechanism by which SPHK-1 signaling mediates its effects on neuronal function in response to oxidative stress.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons are highly susceptible to damage by oxidative stress, yet have limited capacity to activate the SKN-1/Nrf2 oxidative stress response, relying instead on astrocytes to provide redox homeostasis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, intertissue signaling from the intestine plays a key role in regulating neuronal function during the oxidative stress response. Here, through a combination of genetic, behavioral, and fluorescent imaging approaches, we found that sphingosine kinase functions in the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway in the intestine to regulate neuropeptide biogenesis and secretion in motor neurons. These results implicate sphingolipid signaling as a new component of the oxidative stress response and suggest that C. elegans may be a genetically tractable model to study non-cell-autonomous oxidative stress signaling to neurons.
PubMed ID: 30082417
MeSH Terms: Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Caenorhabditis elegans; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism*; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation; Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism; Motor Neurons/metabolism; NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics; NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism; Neuropeptides/metabolism*; Oxidative Stress/physiology*; Phosphorylation; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/genetics; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism*; Signal Transduction/physiology*; Transcription Factors/genetics; Transcription Factors/metabolism