Title: Investigating the Role of Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction during Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Lung Carcinogenesis.
Authors: Wise, James T F; Wang, Lei; Alstott, Michael C; Ngalame, Ntube N O; Wang, Yuting; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin
Published In J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, (2018)
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a lung carcinogen and its complete mechanism of action remains to be investigated. Metabolic reprogramming of key energy metabolism pathways (e.g., increased anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen or "Warburg effect", dysregulated mitochondrial function, and lipogenesis) are important to cancer cell and tumor survival and growth. In our current understanding of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis, the role for metabolic reprogramming remains unclear. In this study, we treated human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) with Cr(VI) for 6 months and obtained malignantly transformed cells from an isolated colony grown in soft agar. We also used Cr(VI)-transformed cells from two other human lung cell lines (BEP2D and WTHBF-6 cells). Overall, we found that all the Cr(VI)-transformed cells had no changes in their mitochondrial respiratory functions (measured by the Seahorse Analyzer) compared with passaged-matched control cells. Using a xenograft tumor growth model, we generated tumors from these transformed cells in Nude mice. Using cells obtained from the xenograft tumor tissues, we observed that these cells had decreased maximal mitochondrial respiration, spare respiratory capacity, and coupling efficiency. These results provide evidence that, although mitochondrial dysfunction does not occur during Cr(VI)-induced transformation of lung cells, it does occur during tumor development.
PubMed ID: 30806238
MeSH Terms: Animals; Carcinogens/toxicity*; Cell Respiration/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Chromium/toxicity*; Epithelial Cells/drug effects*; Epithelial Cells/physiology; Humans; Lung Neoplasms/chemically induced*; Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology; Mice; Mice, Nude; Mitochondria/drug effects*; Mitochondria/physiology; Neoplasm Transplantation