Title: Chromium (VI) inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in vivo and in arsenic-exposed human airway epithelial cells.
Authors: O'Hara, Kimberley A; Nemec, Antonia A; Alam, Jawed; Klei, Linda R; Mossman, Brooke T; Barchowsky, Aaron
Published In J Cell Physiol, (2006 Oct)
Abstract: Inhaled hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) promotes lung injury and pulmonary diseases through poorly defined mechanisms. One hypothesis for this lung pathogenesis is that Cr(VI) silences induction of cytoprotective genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), whose total lung mRNA levels were reduced 21 days after nasal instillation of potassium dichromate in C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the mechanisms for this inhibition, Cr(VI) effects on basal and arsenic (As(III))-induced HO-1 expression were examined in cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. An effect of Cr(VI) on the low basal HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in BEAS-2B cells was not detectible. In contrast, Cr(VI) added to the cells before As(III), but not simultaneously with As(III), attenuated As(III)-induced HO-1 expression. Transient transfection with luciferase reporter gene constructs controlled by the full length ho-1 promoter or deletion mutants demonstrated that this inhibition occurred in the E1 enhancer region containing critical antioxidant response elements (ARE). Cr(VI) pretreatment inhibited As(III)-induced activity of a transiently expressed reporter construct regulated by three ARE tandem repeats. The mechanism for this Cr(VI)-attenuated transactivation appeared to be Cr(VI) reduction of the nuclear levels of the transcription factor Nrf2 and As(III)-stimulated Nrf2 transcriptional complex binding to the ARE cis element. Finally, exposing cells to Cr(VI) prior to co-exposure with As(III) synergized for apoptosis and loss of membrane integrity. These data suggest that Cr(VI) silences induction of ARE-driven genes required for protection from secondary insults. The data also have important implications for understanding the toxic mechanisms of low level, mixed metal exposures in the lung.
PubMed ID: 16775837
MeSH Terms: Animals; Apoptosis; Arsenic/toxicity*; Cell Line; Chromium/pharmacology*; Drug Synergism; Enhancer Elements, Genetic; Epithelial Cells; Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics; Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism*; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; RNA, Messenger/metabolism*; Response Elements*; Trachea/cytology*; Transcriptional Activation; Transfection