Title: Methylmercury Neurotoxicity: Exploring Potential Novel Targets.
Authors: Aschner, J L; Aschner, M
Published In Open Toxicol J, (2007)
Abstract: Mechanistic studies on the effects of MeHg in the central nervous system (CNS) have been limited to morphology, substrate uptake and macromolecular synthesis, differentiation, and changes in gene expression during development and adulthood, but its primary site of action has yet to be identified. Proper functioning of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-cyclic GMP and the cyclooxygenase (COX)-prostaglandin (PG) signaling pathways in the CNS depend on post-translational modifications of key enzymes by chaperone proteins. The ability of MeHg to alter or inhibit chaperone-client protein interactions is hitherto unexplored, and potentially offers an upstream unifying mechanism for the plethora of MeHg effects, ranging from reactive species generation (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in redox potential, macromolecule synthesis, and cell swelling. In view of the prominent function of astrocytes in the maintenance of the extracellular milieu and their critical role in mediating MeHg neurotoxicity, they afford a relevant and well-established experimental model. The present review is predicated on (a) the remarkable affinity of mercurials for the anionic form of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, (b) the essential role of thiols in protein biochemistry, and (c) the role of molecular chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the regulation of protein redox status by facilitating the formation and breakage of disulfide bridges. We offer potential sites where MeHg may interfere with cellular homeostasis and advance a novel mechanistic model for MeHg-induced neurotoxicity.
PubMed ID: 31178939
MeSH Terms: No MeSH terms associated with this publication