Title: Role of the human N-acetyltransferase 2 genetic polymorphism in metabolism and genotoxicity of 4, 4'-methylenedianiline.
Authors: Salazar-González, Raúl A; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Doll, Mark A; Lykoudi, Angeliki; Hein, David W
Published In Arch Toxicol, (2019 08)
Abstract: 4, 4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA) is used extensively as a curing agent in the production of elastomers and is classified as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence in animal experiments. Human N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) catalyze the N-acetylation of aromatic amines and NAT2 is subjected to a common genetic polymorphism in human populations separating individuals into rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylator phenotypes. Although MDA is known to undergo N-acetylation to mono- and di-acetyl metabolites, very little is known regarding whether this metabolism is subject to the NAT2 genetic polymorphism. We investigated the N-acetylation of MDA by recombinant human NAT1, NAT2, genetic variants of NAT2, and cryoplateable human hepatocytes obtained from rapid, intermediate and slow acetylators. MDA N-acetylation was catalyzed by both recombinant human NAT1 and NAT2 exhibiting a fivefold higher affinity for human NAT2. N-acetylation of MDA was acetylator genotype dependent as evidenced via its N-acetylation by recombinant human NAT2 genetic variants or by cryoplateable human hepatocytes. MDA N-acetylation to the mono-acetyl or di-acetyl-MDA was highest in rapid, lower in intermediate, and lowest in slow acetylator human hepatocytes. MDA-induced DNA damage in the human hepatocytes was dose-dependent and also acetylator genotype dependent with highest levels of DNA damage in rapid, lower in intermediate, and lowest in slow acetylator human hepatocytes under the same MDA exposure level. In summary, the N-acetylation of MDA by recombinant human NAT2 and cryopreserved human hepatocytes support an important role for the NAT2 genetic polymorphism in modifying MDA metabolism and genotoxicity and potentially carcinogenic risk.
PubMed ID: 31292670
MeSH Terms: Aniline Compounds/pharmacokinetics; Aniline Compounds/toxicity*; Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics*; Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/metabolism; Cryopreservation; DNA Damage; Hepatocytes/drug effects; Hepatocytes/metabolism; Humans; Inactivation, Metabolic; Isoenzymes/genetics; Isoenzymes/metabolism; Mutagenicity Tests; Polymorphism, Genetic*; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism