Title: Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis.
Authors: Chen, Qiao Yi; Murphy, Anthony; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max
Published In Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, (2019 08 15)
Abstract: Chromium (Cr) is a naturally occurring metallic element found in the Earth's crust. While trivalent chromium ([Cr(III)] is considered non-carcinogenic, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has long been established as an IARC class I human carcinogen, known to induce cancers of the lung. Current literature suggests that Cr(VI) is capable of inducing carcinogenesis through both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Although much has been learned about the molecular etiology of Cr(VI)-induced lung carcinogenesis, more remains to be explored. In particular, the explicit epigenetic alterations induced by Cr(VI) in lung cancer including histone modifications and miRNAs, remain understudied. Through comprehensive review of available literature found between 1973 and 2019, this article provides a summary of updated understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI)-carcinogenesis. In addition, this review identifies potential research gaps in the areas of histone modifications and miRNAs, which may prompt new niches for future research.
PubMed ID: 31228494
MeSH Terms: Animals; Carcinogenesis/genetics*; Carcinogens/toxicity*; Chromium/toxicity*; Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects*; Humans; Neoplasms/chemically induced*; Neoplasms/genetics*