Title: Histone variants in environmental-stress-induced DNA damage repair.
Authors: Chen, Danqi; Jin, Chunyuan
Published In Mutat Res, (2019 Apr - Jun)
Abstract: Environmental stress such as genotoxic agents can cause DNA damage either indirectly through the generation of reactive oxygen species or directly by interactions with the DNA molecule. Damage to the genetic material may cause mutations and ultimately cancer. Genotoxic mutation can be prevented either by apoptosis or DNA repair. In response to DNA damage, cells have evolved DNA damage responses (DDR) to detect, signal, and repair DNA lesions. Epigenetic mechanisms play critically important roles in DDR, which requires changes in chromatin structure and dynamics to modulate DNA accessibility. Incorporation of histone variants into chromatin is considered as an epigenetic mechanism. Canonical histones can be replaced with variant histones that change chromatin structure, stability, and dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated involvement of nearly all histone variants in environmental-stress-induced DNA damage repair through various mechanisms, including affecting nucleosome dynamics, carrying variant-specific modification, promoting transcriptional competence or silencing, mediating rearrangement of chromosomes, attracting specific repair proteins, among others. In this review, we will focus on the role of histone variants in DNA damage repair after exposure to environmental genotoxic agents. Understanding the mechanisms regulating environmental exposure-induced epigenetic changes, including replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, will promote the development of strategies to prevent or reverse these changes.
PubMed ID: 31395349
MeSH Terms: Animals; DNA Damage/genetics*; DNA Repair/genetics*; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics; Histones/genetics*; Humans; Nucleosomes/genetics; Stress, Physiological/genetics*