Title: Constitutive Activation of NAD-Dependent Sirtuin 3 Plays an Important Role in Tumorigenesis of Chromium(VI)-Transformed Cells.
Authors: Clementino, Marco; Kim, Donghern; Zhang, Zhuo
Published In Toxicol Sci, (2019 05 01)
Abstract: Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] causes malignant cell transformation. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial adaptive response to stress, such as metabolic reprogramming and antioxidant defense mechanisms. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, SIRT3 was upregulated and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and proton leak were reduced. Knockdown of SIRT3 by its shRNA further decreased mitochondrial ATP production, proton leak, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that SIRT3 positively regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity. Mitophagy is critical to maintain proper cellular functions. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells expressions of Pink 1 and Parkin, two mitophagy proteins, were elevated, and mitophagy remained similar as that in passage-matched normal BEAS-2B cells, indicating that in -Cr(VI)-transformed cells mitophagy is suppressed. Knockdown of SIRT3 induced mitophagy, suggesting that SIRT3 plays an important role in mitophagy suppression of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. In Cr(VI)-transformed cells, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) was constitutively activated, and protein levels of p62 and p-p62Ser349 were elevated. Knockdown of SIRT3 or treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) decreased the binding of p-p62Ser349 to Keap1, resulting in increased binding of Keap1 to Nrf2 and consequently reduced Nrf2 activation. The results from CHIP assay showed that in Cr(VI)-transformed cells binding of Nrf2 to antioxidant response element (ARE) of SIRT3 gene promoter was dramatically increased. Knockdown of SIRT3 suppressed cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Overexpression of SIRT3 in normal BEAS-2B cells exhibited mitophagy suppression phenotype and increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The present study demonstrated that upregulation of SIRT3 causes mitophagy suppression and plays an important role in cell survival and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells.
PubMed ID: 30715550
MeSH Terms: Bronchi/drug effects*; Bronchi/enzymology; Bronchi/pathology; Cell Line, Transformed; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/chemically induced*; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology; Chromates/toxicity*; Chromium/toxicity*; Energy Metabolism/drug effects; Enzyme Activation; Epithelial Cells/drug effects*; Epithelial Cells/enzymology; Epithelial Cells/pathology; Humans; Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism; Mitochondria/drug effects*; Mitochondria/enzymology; Mitochondria/genetics; Mitochondria/pathology; Mitophagy/drug effects; NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism; Sequestosome-1 Protein/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Sirtuin 3/genetics; Sirtuin 3/metabolism*