Title: Maternal urinary cadmium, glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study.
Authors: Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Jackson, Brian P; Baker, Emily; Karagas, Margaret R
Published In Environ Res, (2019 12)
Abstract: Exposure to cadmium may contribute to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and glucose intolerance during pregnancy.We examined 917 women enrolled from 2009 to 2017 in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Lifestyle, diet, demographic factors and pregnancy outcomes were collected by questionnaire and medical record review. Cadmium concentrations were measured in urine samples collected at 24-28 weeks gestation. Women were classified as normal (n = 815), glucose intolerant (n = 86), or GDM (n = 16) based on clinical data (i.e., glucose challenge test, oral glucose challenge test). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders, using multinomial logistic regression to examine disease severity (normal, glucose intolerant, GDM) and logistic regression to examine the combined outcome of gestational hyperglycemia.Little to no association was observed for glucose intolerance (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.85-1.45) or GDM (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.51-1.44) with a doubling of urinary cadmium as compared to normal women. The combined outcome of gestational hyperglycemia yielded similar results (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84-1.35). However, when stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), there was a slight association with the combined outcome in normal weight women (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.88-1.98) and no association in the overweight or obese women. This positive association remained in restricted analyses of only women with no exposure to smoking during pregnancy and those who had never smoked.Cadmium exposure was suggestively associated with increased risk of gestational hyperglycemia among women not already at increased risk of GDM due to being overweight or obese; however, associations of cadmium with gestational hyperglycemia were not statistically significant.
PubMed ID: 31561054
MeSH Terms: Body Mass Index; Cadmium/urine*; Cohort Studies; Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology*; Environmental Pollutants/urine*; Female; Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology*; Humans; Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data*; New Hampshire/epidemiology; Pregnancy; Risk Factors