Title: Hormonal Profiles of Menstrual Bleeding Patterns During the Luteal-Follicular Transition.
Authors: Jacobson, Melanie H; Howards, Penelope P; Kesner, James S; Meadows, Juliana W; Dominguez, Celia E; Spencer, Jessica B; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Terrell, Metrecia L; Marcus, Michele
Published In J Clin Endocrinol Metab, (2020 05 01)
Abstract: Menstrual cycle function is determined by a complex endocrine axis that controls the ovaries and endometrium. While the late luteal phase is characterized by declining progesterone and estrogen, how these hormonal profiles relate to menstrual bleeding patterns is not well understood.Characterize associations between luteal phase hormonal profiles and subsequent menstrual bleeding patterns, specifically spotting before bleeding.We examined creatinine-adjusted urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E13G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G) levels in relation to spotting in 116 premenopausal women (ages 20-47) who kept daily menstrual diaries and collected first morning urine samples for ≥ 2 consecutive cycles or 1 luteal-follicular transition (n = 283 transitions). We used linear mixed models to estimate associations between luteal phase hormone levels and spotting before bleeding.Transitions with ≥ 1 days of spotting before menstrual bleeding (n = 118) had greater luteal phase Pd3G levels vs nonspotting transitions (n = 165). Differences in Pd3G between spotting and nonspotting transitions were largest at menses onset (34.8%, 95% confidence interval, 18.9%, 52.7%). Pd3G levels for spotting transitions dropped to similar levels as nonspotting transitions an average of 1 day later, which aligned with the first day of bleeding for transitions with contiguous spotting. Spotting transitions were preceded by slower rates of Pd3G decline than nonspotting transitions, whereas E13G declines were similar.Self-reported bleeding patterns may provide insight into luteal phase Pd3G levels. First bleed appears to be the best choice for defining the end of the luteal phase and achieving hormonal consistency across transitions.
PubMed ID: 32115635
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; Cohort Studies; Estrone/analogs & derivatives; Estrone/metabolism; Estrone/urine; Female; Follicular Phase/metabolism; Follicular Phase/urine*; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/urine*; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Luteal Phase/metabolism; Luteal Phase/urine*; Menstruation/metabolism; Menstruation/urine*; Middle Aged; Pregnanediol/analogs & derivatives; Pregnanediol/metabolism; Pregnanediol/urine; Time Factors; Urinalysis; Young Adult