Title: Elevated Plasmin(ogen) as a Common Risk Factor for COVID-19 Susceptibility.
Authors: Ji, Hong-Long; Zhao, Runzhen; Matalon, Sadis; Matthay, Michael A
Published In Physiol Rev, (2020 07 01)
Abstract: Patients with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney dysfunction have worse clinical outcomes when infected with SARS-CoV-2, for unknown reasons. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for the existence of elevated plasmin(ogen) in COVID-19 patients with these comorbid conditions. Plasmin, and other proteases, may cleave a newly inserted furin site in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, extracellularly, which increases its infectivity and virulence. Hyperfibrinolysis associated with plasmin leads to elevated D-dimer in severe patients. The plasmin(ogen) system may prove a promising therapeutic target for combating COVID-19.
PubMed ID: 32216698
MeSH Terms: Betacoronavirus/metabolism; Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity; COVID-19; Comorbidity; Coronavirus Infections/blood*; Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology; Coronavirus Infections/mortality; Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology; Disease Susceptibility/blood*; Fibrinolysin/metabolism*; Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology*; Humans; Pandemics; Plasminogen/metabolism*; Pneumonia, Viral/blood*; Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology; Pneumonia, Viral/mortality; Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood; Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology; Risk Factors; SARS-CoV-2